Bullying factores: Facts About Bullying | StopBullying.gov

Bullying factores: Facts About Bullying | StopBullying.gov

Facts About Bullying | StopBullying.gov

This section pulls together fundamental information about bullying, including:

  • Definition
  • Research on Bullying
  • Bullying Statistics
  • Bullying and Suicide
  • Anti-Bullying Laws

Definition of Bullying

In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Department of Education released the first federal definition of bullying. The definition includes three core elements:

  • unwanted aggressive behavior
  • observed or perceived power imbalance
  • repetition or high likelihood of repetition of bullying behaviors

This definition helps determine whether an incident is bullying or another type of aggressive behavior or both.

Research on Bullying

Bullying prevention is a growing research field that investigates the complexities and consequences of bullying. Important areas for more research include:

  • Prevalence of bullying in schools
  • Prevalence of cyberbullying in online spaces
  • How bullying affects people
  • Risk factors for people who are bullied, people who bully others, or both
  • How to prevent bullying
  • How media and media coverage affects bullying

What We’ve Learned about Bullying

  • Bullying affects all youth, including those who are bullied, those who bully others, and those who witness bullying. The effects of bullying may continue into adulthood.
  • There is not a single profile of a young person involved in bullying. Youth who bully can be either well connected socially or marginalized, and may be bullied by others as well. Similarly, those who are bullied sometimes bully others.
  • Solutions to bullying are not simple. Bullying prevention approaches that show the most promise confront the problem from many angles. They involve the entire school community—students, families, administrators, teachers, and staff such as bus drivers, nurses, cafeteria and front office staff—in creating a culture of respect. Zero tolerance and expulsion are not effective approaches.
  • Bystanders, or those who see bullying, can make a huge difference when they intervene on behalf of someone being bullied.
  • Studies also have shown that adults can help prevent bullying by talking to children about bullying, encouraging them to do what they love, modeling kindness and respect, and seeking help.

Bullying Statistics

Here are federal statistics about bullying in the United States. Data sources include the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2019 (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice) and the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

How Common Is Bullying

  • About 20% of students ages 12-18 experienced bullying nationwide.
  • Students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied said they thought those who bullied them:
    • Had the ability to influence other students’ perception of them (56%).
    • Had more social influence (50%).
    • Were physically stronger or larger (40%).
    • Had more money (31%).

Bullying in Schools

  • Nationwide, 19% of students in grades 9–12 report being bullied on school property in the 12 months prior to the survey.
  • The following percentages of students ages 12-18 had experienced bullying in various places at school:
    • Hallway or stairwell (43. 4%)
    • Classroom (42.1%)
    • Cafeteria (26.8%)
    • Outside on school grounds (21.9%)
    • Online or text (15.3%)
    • Bathroom or locker room (12.1%)
    • Somewhere else in the school building (2.1%)
  • Approximately 46% of students ages 12-18 who were bullied during the school year notified an adult at school about the bullying.

Cyberbullying

  • Among students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, 15 % were bullied online or by text.
  • An estimated 14.9% of high school students were electronically bullied in the 12 months prior to the survey.

Types of Bullying

  • Students ages 12-18  experienced  various types of bullying, including:
    • Being the subject of rumors or lies (13. 4%)
    • Being made fun of, called names, or insulted (13.0%)
    • Pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on (5.3%)
    • Leaving out/exclusion (5.2%)
    • Threatened with harm (3.9%)
    • Others tried to make them do things they did not want to do (1.9%)
    • Property was destroyed on purpose (1.4%)

State and Local Statistics

Follow these links for state and local figures on the following topics:

  • Bullied on School Property, Grades 9-12
  • Cyberbullied, Grades 9-12

International Statistics

According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics:

  • One third of the globe’s youth is bullied; this ranges from as low as 7% in Tajikistan to 74% in Samoa.
  • Low socioeconomic status is a main factor in youth bullying within wealthy countries.
  • Immigrant-born youth in wealthy countries are more likely to be bullied than locally-born youth.

Bullying and Suicide

The relationship between bullying and suicide is complex. The media should avoid oversimplifying these issues and insinuating or directly stating that bullying can cause suicide. The facts tell a different story. It is not accurate and potentially dangerous to present bullying as the “cause” or “reason” for a suicide, or to suggest that suicide is a natural response to bullying.

  • Research indicates that persistent bullying can lead to or worsen feelings of isolation, rejection, exclusion, and despair, as well as depression and anxiety, which can contribute to suicidal behavior.
  • The vast majority of young people who are bullied do not become suicidal.
  • Most young people who die by suicide have multiple risk factors.
  • For more information on the relationship between bullying and suicide, read “The Relationship Between Bullying and Suicide: What We Know and What it Means for Schools” from the CDC.

Anti-Bullying Laws

All states have anti-bullying legislation. When bullying is also harassment and happens in the school context, schools have a legal obligation to respond to it according to federal laws.

What Is Bullying | StopBullying.gov

Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Both kids who are bullied and who bully others may have serious, lasting problems.

In order to be considered bullying, the behavior must be aggressive and include:

  • An Imbalance of Power: Kids who bully use their power—such as physical strength, access to embarrassing information, or popularity—to control or harm others. Power imbalances can change over time and in different situations, even if they involve the same people.
  • Repetition: Bullying behaviors happen more than once or have the potential to happen more than once.

Bullying includes actions such as making threats, spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, and excluding someone from a group on purpose.

  • Types of Bullying
  • Where and When Bullying Happens
  • Frequency of Bullying

Types of Bullying

There are three types of bullying:

  • Verbal bullying is saying or writing mean things. Verbal bullying includes:
    • Teasing
    • Name-calling
    • Inappropriate sexual comments
    • Taunting
    • Threatening to cause harm
  • Social bullying, sometimes referred to as relational bullying, involves hurting someone’s reputation or relationships. Social bullying includes:
    • Leaving someone out on purpose
    • Telling other children not to be friends with someone
    • Spreading rumors about someone
    • Embarrassing someone in public
  • Physical bullying involves hurting a person’s body or possessions. Physical bullying includes:
    • Hitting/kicking/pinching
    • Spitting
    • Tripping/pushing
    • Taking or breaking someone’s things
    • Making mean or rude hand gestures

Where and When Bullying Happens

Bullying can occur during or after school hours. While most reported bullying happens in the school building, a significant percentage also happens in places like on the playground or the bus. It can also happen travelling to or from school, in the youth’s neighborhood, or on the Internet.

Frequency of Bullying

There are two sources of federally collected data on youth bullying:

  • The 2019 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice) indicates that, nationwide, about 22% of students ages 12–18 experienced bullying.
  • The 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) indicates that, nationwide, 19.5% of students in grades 9–12 report being bullied on school property in the 12 months preceding the survey.

See also «Frequency of Cyberbullying.»

Cyberbullying and its impact on human rights

©Sierra McKenna/2011-2016 Mouseleaf

About the Author

Liam Hackett

Liam Hackett is the founder and director of the anti-bullying and equality charity Ditch the Label, United Kingdom.

Most medical professionals share the opinion that the main factor in mortality in today’s society is stress. Left untreated, stress can be extremely detrimental to both physical and mental health and can lead to diseases such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia and depression. However, if you think about the enormous number of stimuli our consciousness is forced to respond to on a daily basis, not to mention the increase in time costs and the instability of political and economic systems, it is not surprising that stress is already comparable in scale to an epidemic.

At the level of society, stress is considered to be a problem that only adults face, and the opinion of young people on this issue is often not taken into account. However, the need to excel in school becomes a source of enormous stress for young people: exams have to be taken more and more often, and their complexity is constantly increasing. Other factors that are increasing the psychological pressure on young people to strive for success and compete directly with their peers include the growth in the number of highly qualified professionals around the world and economic uncertainty.

In addition to the academic load, young people face even more serious problems, such as hormonal changes, the search for their own identity and the publicity of life, due to the presence on the Internet.

The concept of digital identity is relatively new, and therefore we have no real experience with integrating technology into our daily lives and ways to distinguish between our personalities in real life and online. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to bring like-minded people and entire communities together, but it is often used as a platform to vilify, harass and insult people within their own homes.

According to research, an average of 7 young people out of 10 have been bullied online at some point in their lives 1 . The concept of «cyberbullying» is often considered as a separate phenomenon, but, in fact, it is a kind of such an age-old problem as bullying. Bullying is fueled by a society’s predisposition to prejudice and discrimination, and it often affects people with protected characteristics such as race, religion, sexual orientation and disability most of all.

Traditionally, bullying was considered a problem that existed only in the educational environment, and one could hide from it in the safety of one’s own home. Today, young people can be bullied not only at school, but also at home, in their family car, in their room, and even in front of their own parents and guardians, without adults suspecting anything. Telecommunications technology has become such an integral part of our modern lives that it is almost impossible for some young people to escape abuse, and many find themselves in a state of constant stress and anxiety because of it. One in three victims of bullying ended up self-harming, and one in ten attempted suicide 2 .

Research consistently shows that about one in two adolescents who have experienced bullying do not tell anyone about it out of fear, embarrassment or disbelief in the effectiveness of support systems. Any kind of violence, whether online or in real life, causes enormous damage to the mental and physical health of young people and provokes more bouts of stress.

After analyzing 19 million tweets over a four-year period, a joint report by anti-bullying charity Ditch the Label and social media monitoring company Brandwatch estimated nearly 5 million cases of misogyny on Twitter alone. «. Fifty-two percent of the misogynistic comments were made by women themselves, who usually commented on the appearance, intelligence, and sexual preferences of other women. The report refers to 7.7 million incidents of racism, 390,296 homophobic and 19,348 transphobic statements found on Twitter 3 . Since the authors of the report analyzed only publicly available data, when extrapolating the findings to the entire Internet, taking into account both public and private communication channels, the amount of hate speech on the network is staggering.

We all perceive our own individuality as something sacred, and we are engaged in its formation and development all our lives. Young people are going through a period of rapid development of their own individuality, and for them this is still largely an unexplored area. Protectable characteristics play a significant role in shaping identity, and therefore young people attach great importance to their religious and cultural affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability. These signs are often used to organize bullying of a person on the Internet. Insults often lead to the fact that a person has an internal rejection of himself. When faced with racism online, young people may decide that their skin color is the problem and want to change that aspect of their personality to avoid being offended.

The same report states that the most frequently abused people on social media are those who discuss politics and sports online, reflecting a culture of intolerance and disrespect for diversity of opinion. Rhetoric such as that used in the United States of America throughout the 2016 presidential campaign to some extent elevated abusive behavior to the level of the norm and sent a clear signal that it is acceptable to attack people with a different point of view or position online. This undermines the right to freedom of expression, which should be inherent in all of us without exception, and creates conditions for the suppression of the expression of other people — often members of marginalized groups.

Physical bullying is one of the most common types of bullying both online and in real life. In our overpopulated world with its unhealthy interest in the life of celebrities, the media, various authority figures and materials that impose certain behaviors and appearances are a source of tremendous psychological pressure for young people. From early childhood, people are constantly told about the importance of physical attractiveness, and as a result, more and more young people develop diseases such as body dysmorphic disorder or eating disorders. A recent survey by Ditch the Label shows that one in two young people today want to change their appearance through means such as plastic surgery 4 . Many young people are looking for confirmation of their innocence from their peers on social networks. This trend is worrisome, as it results in self-confidence and self-esteem becoming characteristics that are highly dependent on the opinions of others. This leaves young people vulnerable to offensive language about their appearance and creates a superficial culture of values ​​based on appearance. There are a growing number of subcultures among online communities that distribute images of people, evaluating their attractiveness on a certain scale. Many young people volunteer to subscribe to these communities in the hope of gaining recognition, at the risk of self-esteem. Unfortunately, a person’s appearance often becomes the object of public insulting statements on the Internet, including without his knowledge.

Internet abuse is a particularly difficult problem. So, for example, now you can be a member of any community and interact with anyone without any geographical restrictions; today a person may be insulted by people who are not part of his usual circle of contacts in real life. Cyberbullying is often a public humiliation of its recipients, whereby other users are able to support and participate in mockery by ‘likes’, replying to messages and spreading offensive posts.

Cyberbullying is not always provoked by people who know the target; these messages are often sent anonymously, which can further justify offending in real life. Anonymous bullying can greatly damage the self-esteem of its victims and deprive them of their security, since without the intervention of the authorities it is very difficult to identify the source of bullying. This can contribute to the development of paranoia in its victims and have a more destructive effect than bullying from acquaintances.

In particularly serious cases of cyberbullying, which involves the unauthorized dissemination of recipients’ personal information, including their address, telephone number, and family details, their physical security and privacy are at risk. «Revenge porn» is a term used to describe the act of distributing pornographic materials involving a certain person without their consent in order to defame and humiliate him in the eyes of both the general public and a narrow circle of friends and relatives. A number of measures have been taken to tighten the legal sanctions for “revenge porn”, as such actions can have a devastating impact on the lives of victims of such abuse. On a societal level, revenge porn victims are often told that they themselves are to blame for what happened, because they should not have sent a nude image of themselves or an intimate video of themselves. Such actions further exacerbate the problem and actually justify the behavior of the aggressor. They dishonor the exploration of one’s own sexuality, which is normally a healthy part of modern relationships. The Internet is eroding historical socio-economic barriers that have previously limited interaction between people, and makes it possible to connect with anyone on the network — from friends and family members to celebrities and world leaders. Open channels of communication generally contribute to the progress of mankind by encouraging cooperation and the exchange of knowledge among people. However, any user of the social network can become a victim of cyberbullying and abuse on the Internet. Due to its transparent and “viral” nature, the Internet is capable of changing a person’s temperament and even his future fate in a matter of seconds, regardless of his status and life experience. For people who are role models in society, the question is not so much how to learn how to prevent online bullying, but how to find the best and most effective methods to solve this problem, and at the same time not allow factual or proactive insults had an overwhelming effect on their own thoughts and behavior. Everyone has the right to civil liberties and a decent life on an equal basis with everyone else. It is necessary to rethink this problem and understand that a person is never insulted because of his race, sexuality, religion or, for example, disability. Bullying another person is the result of a negative attitude or life circumstances of the aggressor. The main difference is that attitudes and life circumstances can change with the right level of support and education. A person’s personality cannot be changed or influenced by insults, and no one should attempt to do so.

Young people should be encouraged to freely express their thoughts and exercise their rights in all areas, whether on the Internet or in the real world. They need to be empowered so that they can contribute to the formation of a democratic and global community by sharing their own ideas and opinions without attacking those who hold different points of view.

A culture of respect and mutual understanding is a key factor in the development of a truly just and equal world. A world in which everything is interconnected needs standards of interaction that everyone will follow. This is our goal, but there is still a long way to go to achieve it.

Notes

1 Ditch the Label, “The annual cyberbullying survey 2013” ​​(Brighton, 2013). Available from http://www.ditchthelabel.org/research-papers/the-cyberbullying-survey-2013/.

2 Ditch the Label, “The annual bullying survey 2016” (Brighton 2016).

Available from http://www. ditchthelabel.org/research-papers/the-annual-bullying-survey-2016/.

3 Ditch the Label and Brandwatch, “Cyberbullying and hate speech: What can social data tell us about hate speech online?” (Brighton, 2016). Available from http://www.ditchthelabel.org/research-papers/cyberbullying-and-hate-speech/.

4 Ditch the Label, “The annual bullying survey 2015” (Brighton, 2015).

Available from http://www.ditchthelabel.org/research-papers/the-annual-bullying-survey-2015/.

Fernando Arias

All stakeholders must play their part in ridding the world of chemical weapons

The destruction of OPCW-declared chemical arsenals will soon be completed. However, current global events clearly demonstrate that preventing the re-emergence of chemical weapons is an agenda item that will always remain open.

The world’s population will soon grow to 8 billion — and then what?

Satisfying the needs and living standards of the world’s large and growing population will require an increase in the level of production and will lead to an increase in consumption. In turn, rising levels of production and increased consumption will increase pressure on natural habitats unless accompanied by green reforms in energy, manufacturing and transport, and changes in human behaviour.

Duncan Copeland

Cooperation and capacity building to stop illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing my stay in Guinea-Bissau almost twenty years ago, this task seemed impossible.

90,000 how the SBU detains and kidnaps Ukrainians who do not agree with the nationalist agenda — Teller Report Teller Report

Short link

Pyotr Svetov

Ukraine has been swept by a wave of spy mania and the fight against dissent. Ukrainian users on social networks report the arrests of people who, from the point of view of the SBU and territorial defense fighters, may adhere to pro-Russian views. Media persons suspected of disloyalty are forced by nationalists to record videos with apologies and statements in support of the Kyiv regime. According to experts, the SBU is intimidating the population of Ukraine so that Russia does not have any social support after the completion of the special operation.

Last week, Kharkiv activist Spartak Golovachev posted a message on social networks that the door of his apartment was being broken down by armed men. In the spring of 2014, Golovachev was already arrested — he spent two years in a pre-trial detention center on charges of organizing mass riots. Fortunately, this time the activist was not at home, the neighbors informed him about the arrival of the security forces.

“At that time, Spartak was not at home, he had already taken his family to a safe place,” a local resident tells RT. — A few days earlier, SBU officers caught him when he was filming how they place military equipment in residential areas. He was beaten, but then, apparently, they did not understand who they had caught, and they released him. And when they compared the data on the new and old detentions, they came to their senses and rushed to look for him.

On March 10, in Kyiv, people who called themselves SBU officers came to the apartment of Ukrainian publicist Yan Taksyur. This was reported by his daughter Maria. According to the girl, they had a search warrant. The security forces took all the money and took Taksyur with them for interrogation without any charges, leaving no telephone for communication.

Four days later, Maria made a second statement, saying that her father was still in the Lukyanovka pre-trial detention center. No charges were brought against him.

However, recently it became known that Taxiur was charged with an article about treason, Ukrainian journalist Myroslava Berdnik wrote on her Facebook page.

On March 11, security forces in Odessa detained the daughter of Mikhail Vyacheslavov, who died on May 2 in the House of Trade Unions. As local media reported, Elena was charged with the fact that she attended rallies in memory of the “Second of May” on Kulikovo Field in Odessa, opposed the “Euromaidan” and called for friendship with Russia. The woman was forced to publicly apologize on camera for what she wrote on social networks.

Priests of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP) are also suspected of working for the Russian special services. So, the other day it became known about the detention of Father Onufry. During a search, a flag of the Donetsk People’s Republic was found in his house, the letter Z painted on furniture, as well as correspondence on the phone, in which he allegedly transmitted the locations of Ukrainian troops to Russian special services.

According to Ukrainian media reports, the number of detainees by the SBU is already reaching dozens. Among those arrested are well-known oppositionists Alexander and Mikhail Kononovichi, who opposed the war in Donbass, political scientists Vlad Mulyk and Yuri Dudkin, who called for friendship with Russia, the elder of the Faithful Cossacks Leonid Maslov, publicists Alexander Karevin and Dmitry Dzhangirov.

In addition, Ramzan Kadyrov said in his Telegram channel that Chechens were being kidnapped in Ukraine.

“Stop kidnapping and taking away in an unknown direction innocent Chechens who are citizens of Ukraine, whose only fault is their nationality. I assure you that this crime of the authorities will not go unpunished. We will find all those involved in these Nazi manifestations and punish them. Do not be surprised if the demand is carried out in the same way, ”wrote the head of Chechnya.

A resident of Kharkov, in an interview with RT, recalled that in Ukraine the persecution of anti-Maidan supporters, as well as those who do not support nationalist sentiments, has been going on for several years.

“The difference between our countries is that in Russia they are fined for unauthorized rallies, while in our country they are shot and burned alive,” says RT’s interlocutor.

According to Oleg Nemensky, a leading expert at the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies, the security forces are intimidating the local population so that Russia does not have any social support after the completion of the special operation in Ukraine.

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