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Fábulas, de Jean de La Fontaine | Apps | 148Apps
Published by: Llorenc Palliser Barber
Universal App —
Designed for iPhone and iPad
Recopilación de las conocidas fábulas de Jeane de la Fontaine (1621-1695), en una agradable interface para el iPhone, iPod e iPad, de paneles con deslizamiento horizontal.
Fábulas que incluye la aplicación:
El gato y la zorr*
Júpiter y el pasajero
Nada con exceso
El lobo y el perro flaco
La ostra y los litigantes
El loco vendiendo sabiduría
El escultor y la estatua de Júpiter
El ratón metamorfoseado en doncella
El colegial, el pedante, y el dueño de un jardín
Los dos pichones
Las exequias de la leona
Los dos amigos
El oso y el floricultor
El ratón y la ostra
El chistoso y los pescados
El perro que lleva la comida de su amo
Las mujeres y el secreto
El hombre y la pulga
El poder de las fábulas
El león, el lobo y la zorr*
El zapatero remendón y el capitalista
La muerte y el moribundo
El animal en la luna
La cabeza y la cola de la culebra
El gato, la comadreja y el gazapillo
Las dos adivinas
Ingratitud e injusticia de los hombres para con la fortuna
El hombre que corre tras la fortuna, y el que la aguarda en su cama
El perro que suelta la presa
El caballo y el asno
El pajarero, el azor y la alondra
El león enfermo y la zorr*
El lugareño y la sierpe
El sol y las ranas
El asno y sus amos
La liebre y la tortuga
El ciervo en la fuente
El viejo y el asno
La mula orgullosa de su genealogía
El zorr*, el mono y los demás animales
El gallo, el gato y el ratoncillo
Júpiter y el aparcero
Febo y Boreas
El león y el cazador
El león y el pastor
El asno cubierto con la piel del león
El oso y los dos camaradas
Las ranas pidiendo rey
El lobo pastor
El molinero, su hijo, y el jumento
Testamento explicado por Esopo
El león y el juramento yendo de caza
(click to enlarge)
(click to enlarge)
Plots, motifs and excerpts from fables.
Publications of the Literature section
We recall what plots and motifs unite the fables of Aesop, La Fontaine and Ivan Krylov and how they are transformed on the way from Ancient Greece through France to Russia.
Illustration for Aesop’s fable «The Fox and Grapes»
Illustration for Krylov’s fable «The Fox and Grapes»
Illustration for Krylov’s fable «The Fox and Grapes»
As Herodotus wrote, Aesop was a slave who received freedom. Exposing the vices of his masters, he could not directly name them in fables, so he endowed them with the features of animals. Possessing figurative thinking, a sharp eye and no less sharp tongue, Aesop created an artistic world in which wolves reason, foxes sum up philosophical explanations for their failures, and ants voice morality. Aesop’s authorship preserved a collection of 426 fables in prose, which was studied in ancient schools, and the plots of his stories that were relevant at all times were retold by many fabulists of later eras. For example, Jean de La Fontaine and Ivan Krylov.
“A hungry Fox crept into the garden and saw a juicy bunch of grapes on a high branch. «That’s what I need!» she exclaimed, ran up and jumped once, twice, a third … but it was all useless — there was no way to get to the grapes. «Ah, so I knew it was still green!» — Fox snorted in self-justification and hurried away.
Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes
Gascon fox, or maybe Norman fox
(They say different things)
Dying of hunger, I suddenly saw above the gazebo
Grapes, so visibly ripe,
In ruddy skin!
Our friend would be glad to eat them,
Yes, I could not reach him
And he said: «He is green —
Let every rabble feed on them!”
Well, isn’t that better than idly complaining?
Jean de La Fontaine, The Fox and the Grapes
Hungry godmother Fox climbed into the garden;
In it, the bunches of grapes were reddened.
The gossip’s eyes and teeth flared up;
And brushes juicy, like yachts, burn;
Only trouble is, they hang high:
Whence and how she comes to them,
Though the eye sees
Yes, the tooth is numb.
Breaking through the whole hour in vain,
She went and said with annoyance: “Well, well!
He looks good,
Yes green — no ripe berries:
You will immediately set the teeth on edge.»
Ivan Krylov, The Fox and the Grapes
Stills from the cartoon «Dragonfly and Ant» (1961)
Stills from the cartoon «Dragonfly and Ant» (1961)
Stills from the cartoon «Dragonfly and Ant» (901) 901
Jean de La Fontaine singled out a new literary genre — the fable — whose plot he borrowed from ancient authors, including Aesop. In 1668 he published Aesop’s Fables, Transcribed in Verse by M. de La Fontaine. There was no lofty morality in Lafontaine’s fables: witty stories affirmed the need for a wise and unflappable attitude to life. A favorite of the courtiers, who fell out of favor with Louis XIV, he wrote fables to please the patroness, the Duchess of Bouillon, and called his works «a lengthy hundred-act comedy staged on the world stage. »
Carried an ant to dry grain beyond its threshold,
Which he has been stocking up for the winter since the summer.
The hungry cicada came close
And she asked, so as not to die, stern.
«But what did you do, tell me, in the summer?»
“I was not lazy, I sang all summer long.”
The ant laughed and hid the bread:
«You sang in the summer, so dance in the cold in the winter.»
(Care is more important about your own benefit,
How to delight the soul with bliss and feasts.)
Aesop, The Ant and the Cicada
The cicada sang in the summer,
But the summer has flown by.
Boreas blew — poor thing
It was very hard here.
Left without a piece:
No flies, no worm.
She went in need to her neighbor.
By the way, the neighbor’s name was Mother Ant.
And plaintively Cicada asked to borrow
At least a little edible, at least a crumb, to live
Until sunny and warm days when she,
Of course, he will pay the neighbor in full.
Until August, she swore, she would return the interest to her.
But Mother Ant does not like to lend.
And this shortcoming, not uncommon in people,
Dear mother Ant had more than one.
The petitioner of the poor was interrogated:
— What did you do in the summer? Answer the question.
— I sang day and night and did not want to sleep.
— Did you sing? Very nice. Now learn to dance.
Jean de La Fontaine, The Cicada and the Ant
Summer sang red;
Didn’t have time to look back
How winter rolls in your eyes.
The field is dead;
There are no more bright days,
As under each leaf
Both the table and the house were ready.
Everything is gone: with a cold winter
Need, hunger comes;
The dragonfly no longer sings:
And who will mind
On the stomach to sing hungry!
Evil melancholy dejected,
She crawls to the Ant:
«Don’t leave me, dear godfather!
Let me gather my strength
And until spring only days
Feed and warm!» —
“Gossip, this is strange to me:
Did you work during the summer?»
Ant tells her.
“Before that, my dear, was it?
In soft ants we have
Songs, playfulness every hour,
So it made my head spin. » —
“Ah, so you …” — “I am without a soul
The whole summer she sang. —
“Did you sing everything? this business:
So come on, dance!
Ivan Krylov, Dragonfly and Ant
Jean-Baptiste Oudry. Wolf and lamb. 1740s.
Alphonse Jaba. Illustration for the fable «The Wolf and the Lamb»
Illustration for the fable «The Wolf and the Lamb»
«This is your true family, finally you found it» , the famous fabulist of his time Ivan Dmitriev told Ivan Krylov, after reading the first two translations of La Fontaine made by the poet. Krylov was a master of simple and precise language, he was prone to pessimism and irony — which was always reflected in his works. He carefully worked on the texts of the fables, striving for conciseness and sharpness of the narrative, and many of Krylov’s «wit»s still remain catchphrases.
Ivan Krylov became a classic of Russian literature during his lifetime, becoming famous not only for Lafontaine’s arrangements, but also for his own original topical fables, with which the poet responded to various events in the country.
A lamb and a wolf met by a brook,
Driven by thirst. Upstream is a wolf,
Lamb below. We are tormented by low greed,
The robber is looking for a reason to clash.
“Why,” he says, “with muddy water
Are you spoiling my drink?» Curly-haired in awe:
“Can I make such a complaint?
After all, water flows from you to me in the river.
The wolf says, powerless before the truth:
«But you scolded me, that’s six months old.»
And he: «I haven’t even been in the world yet.» —
“So, it was your father who scolded me,”
And having decided so, he will execute him unjustly.
People are mentioned here who
Oppresses innocence, having invented reasons.
Aesop, The Wolf and the Lamb
The argument of the strongest is always the best:
We will show it immediately:
The lamb quenched his thirst
In the stream of a pure wave;
There is a wolf on an empty stomach, looking for adventure,
His hunger drew him to these places.
“How are you so brave to muddy the waters?
— This beast, full of rage, says
“You will be punished for your bravery.
— Sir, the Lamb answers, let Your Majesty not be angry;
But let him see
But let him see
That I quench my thirst
In the stream
Twenty steps lower than Your Majesty;
And therefore in no way
I cannot muddy your water.
«You’re stirring her up,» said the cruel beast,
“And I know that you slandered me last year.
— How could I, because I was not yet born then?
— Said the Lamb, — I still drink mother’s milk.
— If not you, then your brother.
— I do not have a brother.
— So, one of yours.
You don’t spare me at all
You, your shepherds and your dogs.
They told me so: I need to take revenge.
After that, deep into the forests
The wolf takes it away, and then eats it,
Without any ceremony.
Jean de La Fontaine, The Wolf and the Lamb
In the case of the strong, the weak is always to blame:
That is why we hear a lot of examples in History,
But we don’t write stories;
But about how they talk in Fables.
On a hot day, a lamb went to the stream to get drunk;
And it is necessary that trouble happen,
That near those places a hungry wolf roamed.
He sees the lamb, he strives for prey;
But, to give the case a legitimate look and sense,
Shouts: «How dare you, insolent, with an unclean snout
Here is pure muddy drink
With sand and silt?
For such insolence
I’ll rip your head off.» —
“When the brightest Wolf allows,
I dare to convey what is down the stream
From the Lordship of his steps I drink a hundred;
And in vain he will deign to be angry:
There’s no way I can bother him to drink.” —
«That’s why I’m lying!
Waste! Have you heard such insolence in the world!
Yes, I remember that you are still in last summer
I was somehow rude here:
I didn’t forget that, buddy!» —
«Have mercy, I’m not yet a year old,» —
The lamb speaks. «So it was your brother.» —
«I have no brothers.» — «So this is kum il matchmaker
And, in a word, someone from your own family.
You yourself, your dogs and your shepherds,
You all want me harm
And if you can, then always harm me,
But I will reconcile their sins with you.» —
«Oh, what am I to blame?» — «Shut up! I’m tired of listening
Leisure time for me to sort out your guilt, puppy!
You are to blame for the fact that I want to eat. —
He said and dragged the Lamb into the dark forest.
Ivan Krylov, The Wolf and the Lamb
foreign literatureQuotes and aphorismsChildren’s booksClassicsLiterature section publications
I, as a hereditary Smolensk peasant, whose great-grandmother Matryona was gored by a cow, but who himself has never been to the village (museum estates and summer cottages do not count …), I always watch dramas from rural life from mixed feelings. Especially films based on European and historical material, seemingly infinitely distant. Well, okay, there are stories from the life of Soviet collective farmers, «serious», such as «Chairman», or musical comedy in the spirit of «Kuban Cossacks» — but Marcel Pagnol, based on whose prose Claude Berry shot his classic dilogy — a 20th-century writer, a film by Claude Berry and even more so consider «new», thirty-odd years ago, but except for the appearance of a scooter in one of the episodes, it seems that the heroes of the diptych are contemporaries of Hugo, if not Voltaire. And while the Soviet collective-farm peasantry thought of nothing but victories in the socialist competition, the French field workers, it turns out, struggled for existence with all their might, sometimes losing to nature and human cunning.
Jean de Florette — an honest, but drinking, unlucky farmer, a loving family man, in general, a very good, but unhappy person, forced to pull his wife and daughter on his hump, literally. Who better than Gerard Depardieu (before and after Jean de Florette who played Cyrano de Bergerac, Jean Valjean, Auguste Rodin, Honore de Balzac, Obelix, other real and fictional, but also exceptionally iconic, mytho-epic heroes for French culture — he and Jean de Floretta, with his power, puts him on a par with them; however, he also played Rasputin and Stalin …), which is called «marked», which causes additional hostility among his fellow villagers, although it is more important that he is a «stranger» in the village, they consider him a “citizen”, overly educated, a bookworm: having inherited his mother’s house with land, Jean is going to take up farming “according to science”, planting pumpkins and something else, but without water, of course, vegetables do not grow, and the source located on the plot was clogged and hid the insidious neighbors, the old man Cesar Subeyran and his nephew Yugolin, nicknamed the Chicken. The old man is played by Yves Montand (and this is perhaps the best among his age film roles), the nephew of the still relatively young Daniel Auteuil (in whose career this is an even more significant, turning point). Planning to annex Jean’s possessions to their own, the intriguers-Subeyrans, with the connivance of fellow villagers, who for the most part are aware of the source, but also do not trust the new hunchback, do not interfere «in other people’s affairs», and therefore are silent, bring the worker to the handle, to alcoholism, devastation and death as a result of an accident: Jean hunchbacks, tries, tries to break through to underground waters with an explosion, is in too much of a hurry, gets a stone knocked out by explosives on the head and dies with a broken cervical vertebra — the widow is forced to sell the estate.
In the second film, respectively, Gerard Depardieu no longer appears (on the other hand, Elizabeth Depardieu, his then wife, mother of Julie and, alas, of the untimely deceased Guillaume, passes through both parts), and young Emmanuelle Beart plays Jean’s grown daughter. A shepherdess named Manon liked the local teacher Bernard (Hippolyte Girardot), but Yuglin the Chicken (still the same Daniel Auteuil) is also passionately in love with her. Ten years after the death of her father, Manon, who witnessed meanness, fatal for Jean, finds a source that feeds the entire village, and manages to literally «turn off the water.» A priest who has recently arrived in the village proclaims during a sermon that there is a criminal in the village whose sin has caused God’s wrath, and the villain must repent. In this case, the curate refers to … the experience of Thebes and King Oedipus! And Manon and the teacher arrange the matter in such a way that the villagers, who did not get any sense from the comical specialist hydroengineer sent by the council, set off in a procession to beg the Lord and the Mother of God to send them water — then the source begins to beat again.
Actually, an attempt to raise a simple, even primitive in plot, historical and everyday drama from peasant life to tragedy, epic, myth — Berry’s dilogy is also curious. It is not surprising that the heroes exist as if out of time — either the 20th century in the yard (namely the 20th, no other), or the 19th, or even the ancient, ancient world, temporary human difficulties in the midst of eternal bucolics and idylls. The sentimental-romantic plot seems to have been written off from old-fashioned literary samples and tries to «take it to the soul» with every detail. To top it all, at the end of the second part it turns out that old Soubeyran is the father of the hunchback he killed, Manon is his granddaughter! Without waiting for an answer from him from the front, the pregnant bride was forced, unable to corrode the fetus — that’s why the baby was born hunchbacked — to marry a blacksmith from another village, which caused displeasure of fellow countrymen. The unfortunate and ugly Chicken, in love with Manon, like Judas, did not reach the “moment of truth” and already hung himself under the weight of pangs of conscience and torments of unquenched passion.