Flujo post ovulacion: Identificación de días fértiles para el embarazo: MedlinePlus enciclopedia médica

Flujo post ovulacion: Identificación de días fértiles para el embarazo: MedlinePlus enciclopedia médica

Identificación de días fértiles para el embarazo: MedlinePlus enciclopedia médica


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Los días fértiles son aquellos en los que una mujer tiene la mayor probabilidad de quedar embarazada.

La infertilidad es un tema relacionado.

Al tratar de quedar embarazadas, muchas parejas planean tener relaciones sexuales alrededor de los días 11 a 14 del ciclo menstrual de 28 días de la mujer. Aquí es cuando ocurre la ovulación.

Es difícil saber exactamente cuándo va a ocurrir la ovulación. Los proveedores de atención médica recomiendan que las parejas que estén tratando de tener un bebé tengan relaciones sexuales entre los días 7 y 20 del ciclo menstrual de la mujer. El día 1 es el primer día de sangrado. Con el fin de quedar embarazada, el hecho de tener relaciones cada dos días o cada tercer día simplemente funciona tan bien como tener relaciones todos los días.

  • Los espermatozoides pueden vivir dentro del cuerpo de una mujer por menos de 5 días.
  • Un óvulo liberado vive menos de 24 horas.
  • Las tasas más altas de embarazo se han reportado cuando el óvulo y el espermatozoide se juntan dentro de las 4 a 6 horas de la ovulación.

Mire éste video sobre:Ovulación

Si usted tiene un ciclo menstrual irregular, un equipo de predicción de la ovulación le puede ayudar a saber cuándo está ovulando. Estos equipos verifican si hay hormona luteinizante (HL) en la orina. Puede comprarlos sin receta en la mayoría de las farmacias.

Existen otros métodos diversos para ayudar a detectar cuándo es más probable que usted pueda concebir un bebé.

Nota: Algunos lubricantes pueden interferir con la concepción. Si usted está tratando de quedar embarazada, debe evitar todas las duchas y lubricantes (incluida la saliva), a excepción de aquellos específicamente diseñados para no interferir con la fertilidad (como Pre-seed). Los lubricantes nunca deben usarse como método anticonceptivo.

EVALUAR EL FLUJO CERVICAL

El flujo cervical protege al semen y ayuda a empujarlo hacia el útero y las trompas de Falopio. Los cambios en el flujo cervical ocurren cuando el cuerpo de la mujer se está alistando para liberar un óvulo. Hay diferencias claras en la forma como luce y se siente a lo largo del ciclo menstrual mensual de una mujer.

  • Durante el periodo menstrual, no hay presencia del flujo cervical.
  • Después del periodo, la vagina está reseca y no hay presencia de flujo cervical.
  • Luego, este se convierte en flujo pegajoso o gomoso.
  • El flujo se torna muy húmedo, cremoso y blanco, lo cual indica que es FÉRTIL.
  • El flujo se torna resbaladizo, elástico y transparente como la clara de huevo, lo cual indica que es MUY FÉRTIL.
  • Después de la ovulación, la vagina se torna reseca de nuevo (ausencia del flujo cervical). El moco cervical puede volverse como goma de mascar gruesa.

Usted puede utilizar los dedos para ver cómo se siente el flujo cervical.

  • Busque el flujo en la parte inferior de la vagina.
  • Tóquelo con los dedos pulgar e índice y, si el flujo se estira mientras se separan los dedos, esto podría significar que la ovulación está cerca.

TOMAR LA TEMPERATURA BASAL

Después de la ovulación, la temperatura corporal se eleva y permanece en un nivel por encima de lo normal por el resto del ciclo ovulatorio. Al final del ciclo, la temperatura desciende de nuevo. La diferencia entre las 2 fases casi siempre es de menos de 1 grado.

  • Usted puede usar un termómetro especial para tomarse la temperatura en la mañana antes de levantarse de la cama.
  • Utilice un termómetro basal de vidrio o un termómetro digital de modo que pueda obtener una precisión hasta de una décima de grado.
  • Mantenga el termómetro en la boca durante 5 minutos o hasta que dé una señal de listo. Trate de no moverse mucho, porque la actividad puede elevar ligeramente la temperatura corporal.

Si la temperatura está entre 2 marcas, registre el número menor. De ser posible, trate de tomar la temperatura a la misma hora todos los días.

Elabore una tabla y anote su temperatura todos los días. Si observa un ciclo completo, probablemente note un punto en el cual las temperaturas se tornan más altas que las de la primera parte del ciclo. La elevación se da cuando la temperatura aumenta 0.2 grados o más por encima de las temperaturas de los 6 días anteriores.

La temperatura es un indicador útil de fertilidad. Después de revisar varios ciclos, usted puede observar un patrón e identificar sus días más fértiles.

Temperatura corporal basal; Infertilidad — días fértiles

  • Útero

Catherino WH. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 223.

Ellert W. Fertility awareness-based methods of contraception (natural family planning). In: Fowler GC, ed. Pfenninger and Fowler’s Procedures for Primary Care. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 117.

Lobo RA. Infertility: etiology, diagnostic evaluation, management, prognosis. In: Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, Lobo RA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 40.

Rivlin K, Davis AR. Contraception and abortion. In: Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, Lobo RA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 13.

Versión en inglés revisada por: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Traducción y localización realizada por: DrTango, Inc.

Flujo después de ovular: ¿es un mal síntoma si hay embarazo?

Durante el ciclo menstrual pasas por varias fases en las que la cantidad, la consistencia y el color de tu flujo o moco cervical va cambiando.

  • Fase folicular. Comienza el primer día de tu menstruación y acaba cuando ovulas. Cuando finaliza la menstruación, un tapón mucoso bloquea la parte interna de tu vagina con el fin de evitar infecciones. Al comienzo de la fase folicular tu flujo será escaso, blanco o transparente y con una textura entre pegajosa y líquida. Según se vaya acercando la fecha de la ovulación, se volverá más abundante y elástico, es el momento en el que se desprende el tapón mucoso.
  • Fase de ovulación. Es la fase en la que eres fértil. En los días previos al desprendimiento del óvulo, tu moco cervical adquiere una consistencia similar a la de la clara de huevo cruda, muy elástica y acuosa. El último día en el que sientas mayor lubricación, será el día en que seas más fértil. Aún puedes ser fértil uno o dos días más, mientras dure la sensación de lubricación.
  • Fase lútea. Esta fase abre el camino hacia un nuevo ciclo. Tu flujo después de ovular habrá perdido elasticidad y tendrá un aspecto espeso, blanquecino y más cremoso.

Reconocer, gracias a tu moco cervical, en qué fase del ciclo menstrual te encuentras te puede resultar muy útil, tanto si estás buscando quedarte embarazada como si estás tratando de evitarlo, es lo que se llama Método de Billings.

¿Cómo es el flujo después de ovular si hay embarazo?

En el caso de que durante la fase de ovulación te hayas quedado embarazada, tendrás un aumento del flujo después de ovular. Es lo que se denomina leucorrea fisiológica de la gestación que va aumentando a lo largo del embarazo. Consiste en una mayor secreción de moco cervical de color blanco, textura lechosa e inodoro.

Este flujo es completamente normal, su función es la de mantener limpia tu pared vaginal actuando como barrera contra las infecciones y para evitar que microorganismos patógenos entren en tu útero y proliferen.

Flujo después de ovular: ¿Cuándo hay que acudir al médico?

En ocasiones, se dan circunstancias que pueden cambiar tu flujo como la toma de ciertos medicamentos, estrés, inadecuada higiene (jabones agresivos), mala alimentación (exceso de grasas, azúcares o harinas refinadas) o ropa de composición sintética o demasiado ajustada en tu zona íntima.

Te aconsejamos acudir a tu médico si detectas alguno de estos síntomas:

  • Flujo con mal olor y de color amarillo intenso.
  • Flujo con olor desagradable y de color verde.
  • Flujo con olor a pescado y de color blanco o gris.
  • Cambios en el olor de tu flujo y mayor cantidad.
  • Flujo demasiado acuoso.

Estos cambios pueden deberse a distintos problemas como la candidiasis, vaginosis, hongos, bacterias o enfermedades de transmisión sexual, entre otros.

En caso de estar embarazada la visita a tu médico debes realizarla con urgencia puesto que algunos cambios en tu flujo pueden indicar que estás sufriendo una pérdida de líquido amniótico o que tienes algún tipo de infección que puede poner en peligro a tu bebé.

Como has visto, tu moco cervical cumple una función en cada una de las fases del ciclo menstrual y durante la gestación. Es fundamental saber cómo debe de ser en cada momento para reconocer si hay alguna variación sospechosa por la que debas acudir a tu médico.

Igenomix

Pioneros y expertos en servicios avanzados de genética reproductiva. Nuestros principales objetivos son la seguridad y la satisfacción de los pacientes.

Influenza

Flu

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    • Influenza

    WHO/T. Pietrasik

    ©
    A photo

    Seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses that circulate throughout the world.

    Pathogen

    There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses — types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal
    epidemics
    diseases.

    Influenza A viruses are subdivided into subtypes according to
    combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA),
    proteins on the surface of the virus. Viruses are currently circulating among humans
    influenza subtypes A(h2N1) and A(h4N2). A(h2N1) is also denoted as A(h2N1)pdm09because he called
    pandemic of 2009 and subsequently replaced the seasonal influenza A(h2N1) virus that circulated until 2009
    of the year. Only influenza type A viruses are known to have caused pandemics.


    on the line. Type B influenza viruses currently circulating belong to the
    lines B/Yamagata and B/Victoria.

    Influenza C virus is less common and usually results in mild
    infections. Therefore, it does not pose a problem for the public
    healthcare.

    Group D viruses , mainly infect large
    cattle. According to available data, they do not infect people and do not cause them
    diseases.

    Signs and symptoms

    Seasonal flu is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise, sore throat and runny nose. The cough can be severe and last 2 weeks or more. In most people, the temperature returns to normal and symptoms resolve within a week without any medical attention. But the flu can lead to severe illness and death, especially in high-risk people (see below).

    The disease can be mild or severe and even fatal. Hospitalizations and deaths occur mainly in high-risk groups. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to result in 3-5 million cases of severe illness and 290,000 to 650,000 deaths from respiratory diseases.

    In industrialized countries, the majority of influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 and over (1). Epidemics can lead to high levels of absenteeism from work/school and loss of productivity. During peak periods of illness, clinics and hospitals can be overcrowded.

    The impact of seasonal influenza epidemics in developing countries is not well known, but studies show that 99% of influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infection deaths in children under 5 years of age occur in developing countries (2).

    Epidemiology

    People get the flu at any age, but there are populations at increased risk .

    • Pregnant women, children under the age of 59 are at increased risk of developing severe illness or complications as a result of infectionmonths, the elderly, people with chronic health conditions (such as chronic heart, lung and kidney disease, metabolic disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, liver and blood diseases) and people who are immunocompromised (as a result of HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy or steroid treatment, as well as in connection with malignant neoplasms).
    • Health care workers are at high risk of influenza virus infection through contact with patients and may facilitate further transmission, especially to people at risk.

    Transmission of seasonal influenza occurs easily and quickly, especially in crowded places, including schools and boarding schools. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, small droplets containing the virus (infectious droplets) enter the air and can spread up to one meter and infect nearby people who inhale them. The infection can also be transmitted through hands contaminated with influenza viruses. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue and wash your hands regularly to prevent transmission of infection when you cough.

    In temperate regions seasonal epidemics occur mainly during the winter season, while in tropical regions influenza viruses circulate all year round, resulting in less regular epidemics. Seasonal epidemics and the burden of disease

    The period of time from infection to disease development, known as the incubation period , lasts about 2 days, but can vary from 1 to 4 days.

    Diagnosis

    In most cases, human influenza is clinically diagnosed. However, during periods of low activity of influenza viruses and in the absence of epidemics, infection with other respiratory viruses such as rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus can also present as an influenza-like illness, making it difficult to clinically differentiate influenza from other pathogens.

    For a definitive diagnosis, proper respiratory specimens must be collected and a laboratory diagnostic test performed. The first critical step for laboratory detection of influenza virus infections is the proper collection, storage and transport of respiratory specimens. Typically, laboratory confirmation of influenza viruses in throat, nasal and nasopharyngeal secretions or aspirates or tracheal washes is by direct antigen detection, virus isolation, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There are a number of manuals on laboratory procedures published and updated by WHO (3).

    Rapid diagnostic tests are used in clinics to detect influenza, but compared to RT-PCR methods, they have low sensitivity, and the reliability of their results depends largely on the conditions in which they are used.

    Treatment

    Patients who are not at high risk should receive symptomatic treatment. If they have symptoms, they are advised to stay at home in order to minimize the risk of infecting others in the community. Treatment is aimed at alleviating flu symptoms, such as high fever. Patients should monitor their condition and seek medical attention if it worsens. If patients are known to be at high risk of developing severe illness or complications (see above), they should receive antivirals as soon as possible in addition to symptomatic treatment.

    Patients with severe or progressive clinical illness associated with suspected or confirmed influenza virus infection (eg, clinical syndromes of pneumonia, sepsis, or exacerbation of co-morbid chronic diseases) should receive antivirals as soon as possible.

    • Neuraminidase inhibitors (eg, oseltamivir) should be given as soon as possible (ideally within 48 hours of symptom onset) to obtain maximum therapeutic benefit. For patients at a later stage of the disease, medication should also be considered.
    • Treatment is recommended for at least 5 days, but can be extended until satisfactory clinical results are obtained.
    • The use of corticosteroids should only be considered for other indications (such as asthma and other specific health conditions) as it is associated with longer clearance of viruses from the body and weakened immune system leading to bacterial or fungal superinfection.
    • All currently circulating influenza viruses are resistant to antiviral drugs of the adamantane class (such as amantadine and rimantadine), so these drugs are not recommended as monotherapy.

    WHO GISRS monitors antiviral resistance among circulating influenza viruses in order to provide timely guidance on the use of antivirals for clinical management and potential chemoprevention.

    Prevention

    The most effective way to prevent the disease is vaccination . For more than 60 years, safe and effective vaccines have been available and used. Some time after vaccination, immunity weakens, so annual vaccination is recommended to protect against influenza. Injectable inactivated influenza vaccines are the most widely used in the world.

    In healthy adults, influenza vaccine provides protection even if the circulating viruses do not exactly match the vaccine viruses. However, for older people, influenza vaccination may be less effective in preventing the disease, but it reduces the severity of the disease and reduces the likelihood of complications and death. Vaccination is especially important for people who are at high risk of developing complications and for people who live with or care for high-risk people.

    WHO recommends annual vaccination for the following populations:

    • pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy
    • children aged 6 months to 5 years
    • elderly people (over 65)
    • people with chronic health conditions
    • healthcare workers.

    The effectiveness of an influenza vaccine depends on how well the circulating viruses match those contained in the vaccine. Due to the constantly changing nature of influenza viruses, the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), a system of national influenza centers and WHO collaborating centers around the world, continuously monitors influenza viruses circulating in humans and updates them twice a year. composition of influenza vaccines.

    Over the years, WHO has been updating its recommendations for vaccine composition (trivalent) targeting the 3 most common circulating virus types (two influenza A subtypes and one influenza B subtype). Starting with the 2013-2014 influenza season in the northern hemisphere, a fourth component is recommended to facilitate the development of a quadrivalent vaccine. Quadrivalent vaccines include a second type B influenza virus in addition to the viruses in the trivalent vaccine and are expected to provide broader protection against influenza type B infections. Many inactivated and recombinant influenza vaccines are available in injectable form. A live attenuated influenza vaccine is available as a nasal spray.

    Pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals is possible, but its effectiveness depends on a number of factors such as the individual, the type of exposure and the risk associated with the exposure.

    In addition to vaccination and antiviral treatment, public health measures include personal protective measures such as:

    • regular washing and proper hand drying;
    • good respiratory hygiene — covering the mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing with tissues and then properly discarding them;
    • timely self-isolation of people who feel unwell, with high fever and other flu-like symptoms;
    • avoiding close contact with sick people;
    • prevention of touching the eyes, nose and mouth.

    WHO activities

    WHO, through the WHO GISRS system and in collaboration with other partners, monitors influenza activity globally, recommends seasonal influenza vaccine formulations twice a year for northern and southern hemispheres, and assists countries with tropical and subtropical climates in the choice of vaccine preparations (for the northern and southern hemispheres) and decisions on the timing of vaccination campaigns, and provides support to Member States in the development of prevention and control strategies.

    WHO works to strengthen national, regional and global capacity for influenza response (including diagnosis, antiviral susceptibility monitoring, disease surveillance and outbreak response), increase vaccination coverage in high-risk populations, and ensure preparedness for the next influenza pandemic.



    (1)
    Estimates of US influenza-associated deaths made using four different methods.
    Thompson WW, Weintraub E, Dhankhar P, Cheng OY, Brammer L, Meltzer MI, et al. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2009;3:37-49

    (2) Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. Lancet 2011; 378: 1917–3

    (3) WHO recommended surveillance standards, Second edition.

    Video

    About the complications of influenza. Why is it necessary to see a doctor?

    Why is influenza, belonging to the group of acute respiratory viral infections, distinguished as a special infection? Why do doctors, media, popular Internet sites talk about the flu?

    The answer is simple: the flu is the only acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) that entails serious complications that not only disrupt the functioning of our body, but are also life-threatening. And these complications are very common. Most often, the complications of influenza are delayed, appear after some time, when the person has already forgotten about the infection. Problems begin in the functioning of the cardiovascular, nervous and other systems of the body.

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), annually in the world up to 500 million people fall ill with influenza and SARS, about 2 million people die from complications of the disease.

    In Moscow, influenza and ARVI account for up to 90% of all registered infectious diseases every year, about 3 million people are ill, of which about 60% are children.

    General information about the disease.

    Influenza is an acute viral infection of the respiratory tract, characterized by damage to the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, fever, intoxication, as well as impaired activity of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

    The source of infection is a sick person with symptomatic or asymptomatic influenza. An important role in the transmission of infection is played by patients with an erased form of the infection, carrying the disease “on their feet”.

    Which organs are most often affected by the influenza virus?

    The most common complications are from the respiratory system, followed by the organs of the cardiovascular system and hematopoietic organs, there are also complications from the nervous and urinary-genital systems.

    Who is at particular risk of influenza complications?

    Children under one year of age and adults over 60 years of age with concomitant diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system and endocrine pathology are at risk for an unfavorable outcome of the disease, in which a fatal outcome is possible due to complications of previously existing diseases.

    Complications of influenza are divided into 2 groups:

    1. Directly related to the course of influenza.

    This is hemorrhagic pulmonary edema, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, infectious toxic shock.

    2. Resulting from a bacterial infection.

    The most dangerous and frequent complication is pneumonia. Pneumonia can be both primary, which developed immediately, and can also be secondary — arising against the background of the addition of a bacterial infection. The bacterial agents that most commonly cause secondary pneumonia are pneumococcus and staphylococcus aureus. Such pneumonia develops at the end of the first — the beginning of the second week of the disease. Viral pneumonia can occur together with bacterial pneumonia that joined later.

    Another deadly complication of influenza is acute respiratory distress syndrome, which consists in a violation of the barrier function of the lung tissue. Against the background of this complication, a serious respiratory failure occurs, often incompatible with life.

    No less dangerous complications are otitis, sinusitis, glomerulonephritis, purulent meningitis, sepsis.

    Toxic damage to the heart muscle, as a complication of influenza, is especially dangerous for the elderly.

    Damage to the central nervous system is manifested by meningeal syndrome, confusion, headache, vomiting.

    With the development of cerebral edema, hemorrhagic encephalitis, the patient has convulsions, impaired consciousness. Such complications often lead to death due to respiratory arrest.

    Influenza Prevention:

    The only sure way to prevent influenza is vaccination. The best time to get vaccinated against influenza is from September to November.

    Prevention of complications.

    If for some reason it was not possible to vaccinate — strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, during the rise in the incidence of influenza, try not to visit public places, do not contact with the sick.

    If you suspect you have a viral infection, call your doctor within 48 hours.

    Do not neglect the treatment prescribed by your doctor, take the prescribed medicines in a timely manner.

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