El parto programado puede concretarse por varios motivos, aunque siempre debe cumplir unos requisitos mínimos. Su principal objetivo, como veremos en el siguiente artículo, es preservar la salud de la madre y del bebé y evitar complicaciones en el nacimiento.
Escrito y verificado por el educador infantil Pedro González Núñez.
Última actualización: 25 marzo, 2019
Por lo general, el parto se produce de forma natural al comenzar la fase de dilatación con las contracciones en el cuerpo de la mujer. Sin embargo, hay ocasiones en las que se puede dar un parto programado o inducido. Como madres, es recomendable conocer esta práctica y sus ventajas y desventajas.
Este tipo de partos programados o inducidos se producen cuando el especialista provoca el parto con algún tipo de medicación. Para ello, se puede usar la oxitocina o la prostaglandina. La elección dependerá del estado del cuello uterino de la mujer.
Este tipo de prácticas suelen llevarse a cabo cuando el parto no comienza de forma natural y espontánea y siempre, si todo transcurre dentro de lo normal, una vez que se han finalizado las 40 semanas de embarazo. En estos casos, el ginecólogo puede recurrir a diferentes técnicas que ayuden a inducir las contracciones para hacer el trabajo de parto.
Hay ocasiones en las que, aunque no se haya cumplido el tiempo establecido de gestación, es necesario inducir el parto. Pueden existir riesgos de embarazo que hacen necesaria la intervención por parte de los médicos para provocar el trabajo de parto programado.
“El parto programado suele llevarse a cabo cuando el parto no comienza de forma natural y espontánea y siempre una vez finalizado el embarazo”
Además, este tipo de inducciones también pueden programarse cuando se desee, siempre que esté todo el equipo médico que trata normalmente a la futura madre. De todos modos, los partos inducidos para un día concreto suelen ser más comunes en las clínicas privadas.
Son muchas los motivos que los médicos pueden tener para llegar a inducir un parto. Estos son algunos de ellos:
Además de las anteriormente citadas, que son las más frecuentes, hay otras causas por las que recurrir al parto programado. Veamos algunas de las más comunes:
Hay varios métodos para inducir un parto. En este caso, dependerá del estado en el que se encuentre el cuello del útero de la futura madre. Si no ha empezado a ablandarse o a dilatarse, se considera que aún no está totalmente maduro. Por lo tanto, no está preparada para el parto, por lo que se aplicarán diferentes hormonas. También se usarán métodos médicos que ayuden a madurar el cuello uterino para así poder inducir al parto.
“El método para inducir el parto dependerá del estado en el que se encuentre el cuello del útero de la futura madre”
Una vez hecho esto, se administra oxitocina para comenzar el parto. Esta situación se induce por vía intravenosa de manera tal que el cuerpo produzca cantidades mayores de esta hormona. El proceso de maduración del cuello uterino puede durar entre 12 y 24 horas.
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Actualizado a: Martes, 20 Junio, 2017 11:26:39
El parto inducido es aquel que debe finalizar antes de que empiecen de forma natural las contracciones uterinas porque existe una indicación materna o fetal, en la que se considera que la permanencia del bebé dentro supone un riesgo para él o la madre, según explica Elena Carreras, jefa del Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital Universitario Valle de Hebrón de Barcelona. “El parto programado debe ser siempre bajo prescripción médica, sólo en casos excepcionales la gestante puede solicitarlo”, sugiere Carreras.
¿Parto inducido o programado? Juan León, obstetra del Hospital Gregorio Marañón de Madrid, comenta que “el término médico correcto es inducción aunque los pacientes suelen verlo como un acontecimiento programado, depende de la perspectiva de cada uno”.
Según León, las situaciones que requieren este procedimiento se pueden englobar en tres grandes bloques:
“Una vez alcanzada la maduración del feto, hay pacientes para las que es mejor dar a luz porque existen enfermedades que durante el embarazo se descompensan. Las más frecuentes son la hipertensión y la diabetes”, describe León.
Hay situaciones en las que permanecer dentro del útero comporta un riesgo para el bebé. “La más común es la bolsa rota que, una vez ocurre, cuánto más tiempo pase sin que se produzca el parto de forma espontánea, hay más posibilidades de infecciones desde la vagina al útero”, comenta este especialista. En estos casos concretos, la inducción depende del protocolo de cada hospital.
León destaca que “a veces no hay patologías ni maternas ni fetales pero se dan otras circunstancias como una placenta insuficiente por lo que es mejor alimentar al bebé fuera”. En este apartado se incluye la gestación prologada cuando, después de la semana 42, aún no se ha producido el parto de forma natural. “Cuando esto pasa, solemos inducirlo entre la 41 o 42 porque aunque los riesgos después de la 42 y 44 no son muy elevados, no queremos perder ningún feto”, apunta.
Como se ya ha mencionado, la inducción con ausencia de enfermedades está ligada a la semana 41 aunque Carreras aclara que “no importan las semanas porque se trata de un procedimiento que se aplica siempre que continuar la gestación suponga un riesgo”. En este punto, León considera que “lo fundamental es alcanzar la madurez del feto, que se produce a partir de la semana 37, aunque hay situaciones que requieren un parto prematuro para mayor seguridad de la madre y el bebé”.
Una vez llega el momento, este experto indica que existen dos mecanismos de inducción: uno es mecánico a través de la sonda Foley para causar la dilatación y otro el farmacológico con sustancias como las prostaglandinas. “Éstas permiten ablandar el cuello del útero y se utilizan después de la oxitocina, la cual provoca las contracciones”, matiza Carreras.
Sobre los efectos adversos de los medicamentos empleados, León advierte de que “depende de la dosis administrada y las características de cada paciente aunque son poco comunes. Lo que más nos preocupa es la fiebre porque puede ser un efecto farmacológico o consecuencia de una posible infección”. La segunda opción es la más grave, por ello, “hay que observar si después de parto hay otras manifestaciones compatibles con las infecciones”, añade.
Por otra parte, Carreras subraya que otra complicación frecuente es la cesárea, lo que genera frustración entre los padres. “A veces la gente tiene una serie expectativas y, si no se cumplen, les queda la sensación de que el resultado fue malo, aunque no sea así. Por ello, ante un parto programado les aconsejo que sean pacientes y confíen en el equipo médico”, concluye León.
¿Qué hacer ante un parto de emergencia?
Ventajas y desventajas del parto con epidural
¿Cesárea o parto vaginal?
Cómo cuidar tus piernas si tienes varices
Recently, articles about new programming languages, as well as various ratings and forecasts related to the popularity of computer languages, often come across.
New tools are also making themselves known, which in their work use their own formats for describing configuration files or sequences of executable commands, which also brings them very close to the concept of a «programming language». nine0003
The purpose of writing this article is to formulate the expectations and possible implementation of an abstract programming language that can become a universal tool for communication between a computer and a person.
If you start from the very beginning, then once upon a time I heard a paraphrased statement, «every programmer must write his own database, text editor and programming language.» And if I wrote the first two things a long time ago, then the programming language has not yet developed. nine0003
After all, how are programming languages usually created?
Each programmer always has some previous experience of his own:
And before describing the syntax, choosing keywords and starting the main work: lexer, parser, basic libraries, you need to answer the main questions:
I, probably, like most readers, have experience in using several programming languages. Therefore, it has long been a practice that to solve a problem it is better to take a known language or even learn a new one, instead of starting to write your own. nine0003
Especially since you don’t want to invent another language just for the sake of a tick or for the sake of the language itself. I believe that the purpose of its creation should be beyond the needs of the developer himself.
And it seems to me that we managed to identify an area for which the development of a programming language can be in demand, and the efforts spent on it can bring real benefits.
This area is programming for «non-programmers» in «natural» language. I deliberately put the words «non-programmers» and «natural» in quotation marks, because. these terms are very conditional. nine0003
After all, if a non-programmer starts programming, then without realizing it, he automatically becomes a programmer ;-). A «natural» programming language cannot be by definition. More precisely, for computers, the Assembler language or a set of machine instructions will most likely be “natural”.
Therefore, the maximum goal is to bring the programming language closer to natural human language.
This will not only make reading the text of the program more understandable for non-professionals, but will also allow you to start writing programs simply by mastering the written language, using the bare minimum of basic rules. nine0003
But there is a very big problem in such a formulation!
Any programming language is international, because its syntax is independent of the natural language in which the programmer is speaking.
And if the text of the program is in a «natural» language, then it will become understandable only for those who know this language, while at the same time becoming incomprehensible to everyone else.
As an illustration: one or two.
If you fantasize about the desires for such a language, then you see the following requirements and restrictions:
Nevertheless, such a language should remain exactly a programming language with all the possibilities for creating programs of any level of complexity, including functional and object-oriented programming and unambiguous understanding of what is written.
Based on the rules of written language, the basic conventions and punctuation for a new language might look something like this:
If with the assignment symbol, quotation marks, round and square brackets, everything should be more or less clear, because their purpose corresponds to that in the vast majority of programming languages, then the purpose of the remaining characters (curly braces, colons, commas and system functions / variables) should be explained a little. nine0003
Since the goal of a hypothetical programming language is still writing programs, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of inserting ordinary program code without taking into account all the possibilities and ambiguities that are inherent in any natural language.
This feature is also required to implement low-level functions and to interact with external libraries.
When creating such inserts, curly brackets can be used, the entire text between which will be inserted into the final file with little or no processing. nine0003
For similar purposes, the symbols «$» — a system variable and «@» — a system function, also serve. If such a symbol is placed at the beginning of a word, then it will denote an object with a corresponding purpose. For example, “@exit” will mean a function, and “$var” will mean a variable with the corresponding names, and the objects themselves will become available both in normal code and in program inserts inside curly braces.
Access to individual fields/methods of objects is organized in a similar way:
«[email protected]» or «object$field». nine0003
The comma symbol «,» is used to indicate a sequence of equal logical blocks in one sentence or to create lists.
The colon symbol «:» is used to create lists and to indicate a logical relationship between two parts of a word/text, including the full path of a module.
For example, creating a list:
To_line: element 1, element 2, last element.
- element 1; nine0007
- element 2;
is the last element.
Logical consequence/link indication:
module:calc //term "calc", which is in the module "module"
super:module:example$var //variable "$var" which is in the specified hierarchy.
As you can see, the use of punctuation marks is taken from their direct use in written language, which should provide a certain compromise between the syntax in standard programming languages and writing in natural language. nine0003
Since we are still talking about a programming language, we cannot do without standard algorithmic constructions: following, branching, and loops.
Following is easily described by the usual rules of writing in natural language. In the case of sequential execution in one sentence, operations and function calls are written sequentially separated by commas. If they are located in different sentences, then they are written in the same way one after another. Moreover, paragraph formatting serves only for a better perception of the text and the logical separation of individual fragments. nine0003
When creating conditional and cyclic control structures, keywords are already required. But since, according to the initial wishes for the language, it is impossible to reserve ordinary terms for recording algorithmic constructions, it is enough to indicate the symbol of the system function before keywords, which will make it possible to distinguish an ordinary term from a key (control) word.
Naturally, while programming, these terms can be used, but it is not necessary to do so. Since when setting up for a specific natural language, system functions and keywords must be assigned specific terms and used already, for example:0003
jump = @goto,
label = @label,
continue = @continue,
[email protected] etc.
And the last one in turn, but probably the most important construction in fact: passing parameters when calling functions. If we strive for a completely natural syntax, then we will get the very natural language that is very difficult to analyze.
However, it seems to me that it is possible to combine the two approaches, as long as the obligatory use of parentheses is omitted, where this is syntax-permissible. nine0003
Computer: function(parameter1, function2(), parameter3=value).
Natural: function parameter1 function2 parameter3=value.
Computer: function( function2(parameter) ).
Natural: function function2(parameter).
Or like this: function (function2 parameter).
In other words, for the natural ordering of arguments, parentheses for functions and commas between parameters can be omitted. Although their use should be determined primarily by the target natural language, not syntax. nine0003
I foresee reasonable objections to the use of such a language on the part of programmers. Any program on it will turn out to be much more verbose than using the strict formal syntax of conventional computer languages.
Therefore, let me remind you of its obligatory property — the ability to convert program text from one language to another. This allows you to write programs using a strictly formal syntax without using redefined natural language terms, as well as converting the source text into a «natural» language for a «non-programmer». nine0003
The proposed version of the «Development» program is the fourth version of the program, adapted for preschool educational institutions in accordance with the Federal State Standard for Preschool Education (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation No. 1155 of 10/17/2013). In accordance with the Requirements for the structure of the educational program, the «Development» program ensures the development of the personality of preschool children in various types of communication and activities, taking into account their age-related, individual psychological characteristics. nine0003
The mental development of a preschool child is extremely diverse and dynamic. In the years of preschool childhood, changes occur in the development of the personality, in the communication of the child with others, knowledge and children’s activities deepen. Highlighting the most significant characteristics of such changes, integrating all the others, is the main task of education. These characteristics are the basic units that determine the key directions of the child’s mental development. As one of these units, we can consider the development of abilities as the main educational goal of this program. The program is aimed at developing children’s abilities in the process of specific preschool activities, in the process of communication with adults and children.
The authors of the program transfer the main attention from the content of education to its means. Recall that the content is knowledge, specific skills and abilities acquired by children in different types of activities or in free activities (ideas about natural phenomena, about people’s life in society, about mathematical relations: counting skills, coherent speech, etc. ) . But for the development of abilities, it is not so much the knowledge and skills themselves (whatever they are) that are important, but how they are presented to children, and, accordingly, are mastered by children. nine0003
The actions that the child performs in the course of learning perform a dual function: on the one hand, they ensure the assimilation of the contents offered in the training, which is especially important for children of older preschool ages in connection with their preparation for school, and on the other hand, and this The main thing is to develop general abilities.
The task facing the authors of the program was to create special educational situations at each age and use the situations of the natural life of children that develop their general abilities to the maximum extent. nine0003
The theoretical foundations of the «Development» program are the following provisions.
First — the concept of self-value of the preschool period of development, developed by A. V. Zaporozhets *. According to this concept, the main path of a child’s development is amplification, i.e., enrichment, filling the development process with the most significant forms and methods of activity for a preschooler that change and rebuild his psyche. Work in line with amplification does not imply accelerating the development of the child with the help of education (transition to the earliest possible solution of school problems), but expanding its capabilities precisely in the preschool spheres of life. nine0003
Second — the theory of activity developed by A. N. Leontiev, D. B. Elkonin, V. V. Davydov and others. According to their theory, the development of the child is carried out in the process of various activities. For a preschool child, this is, first of all, a game, as well as design, visual activity, literary and artistic. The development of the child’s abilities makes him a true subject of activity, primarily play, the formation of developed forms of which occurs by the end of preschool age. nine0003
The third is the concept of ability development developed by L. A. Wenger** and his associates. By abilities, following Russian authors (L.S. Vygotsky, B.M. Teplov, S.L. Rubinshtein, A.N. Leontiev, L.A. activities, the success of solving a particular problem. Abilities are understood as indicative actions, which are carried out by using the means existing in the culture. For preschoolers, such means are primarily figurative in nature. These are various standards, schemes, models, symbols, at the same time — these can be verbally given rules and instructions. ***
Abilities allow the child to independently generalize his empirical experience, analyze a new situation, and find solutions to various problems. The main way of developing abilities is a constant transition from external actions with conditional substitutes (schemes, models, symbols) to actions in the mind. As a rule, children first perform actions that are new to them together with adults, then with other children, and finally on their own.
Abilities can relate to different areas of reality, different types of tasks arising from the interaction of a person with the surrounding reality. nine0003
* Zaporozhets A.V. Selected psychological works: In 2 volumes. M., 1986. T.1. Psychological development of the child
** Development of cognitive abilities in the process of preschool education /Ed. L. A. Venger. M, 1986
*** Word and image in solving cognitive problems for preschoolers / Ed. L.A. Vengera. M., Intor, 1996.
Conventionally, depending on the task that a person has in relation to the surrounding reality, abilities can be divided into three types: cognitive, communicative and regulatory.
Classification of abilities by types of tasks can be carried out in accordance with the spheres of reality in terms of their representation in the human psyche. From the point of view of K.-R. Popper in the surrounding world, one can single out the objective side of reality — the sphere of human relations and the person himself. * The tasks assigned to each of the selected areas contain the need to develop certain abilities in a person in situations of interaction with the object world and the world of human relations — mental (cognitive and creative) — for interacting with the object world, communicative — for interacting with people and regulatory — for regulating one’s behavior and activities. Mental abilities can be divided into cognitive and creative, cognitive, in turn — into sensory and intellectual.
Abilities of perception ( sensory abilities ) “are found in the form of perception of certain properties and of relations between objects and phenomena of the objective world or properties of the individual’s own actions » . The solution of various perceptual problems occurs with the help of sensory standards and actions for their use . (For more information about sensory abilities, see the «Sensory education» section of the educational area «Cognitive development»).
The development of intellectual abilities occurs in the process of mastering substitution actions, building and using visual models, as well as words in the planning function.
The process of mastering visual modeling includes several separate lines. nine0207 The first line — expanding the range of modeled relationships. The most simple and accessible for children is visual modeling of spatial relationships. In the future, it turns out to be possible to introduce the modeling of temporal relations and then the modeling of other types of relations, up to logical ones.
The second line of changes concerns the degree of generality and abstractness of modeled relationships within each type. At first, modeling of single specific situations is available to children, later children build models that have a generalized meaning and reflect the features of many objects and situations. nine0003
The third line of change consists in changing the visual models themselves with which children operate. The movement goes from models that display the external features of objects both in a specific and in a generalized form — iconic models, to models that are a conditionally symbolic image of relationships.
* Popper K.-R. Logic and the growth of scientific knowledge. Per from English. Moscow: Progress, 1983
The fourth line of changes is related to the type of simulation actions performed. At first, the use of ready-made models is more accessible to children, later they can master the actions of building them on their own. Building a model includes two successive stages: building a model according to the current situation and according to one’s own plan. In the second case, modeling acts as a function of activity planning and indicates the presence of internal ideal forms of modeling.
Creative the abilities of preschoolers can develop in the process of solving tasks to create images of the imagination. The simplest of these images is created, for example, by objectifying an elementary graphic image (a circle — an apple, a ball, a ball). In the future, this is the creation of detailed images, images included in the plot, images-compositions in which the sample proposed for drawing is a secondary detail (O.M. Dyachenko)*
Much attention is paid to the development of the child’s creative abilities in the program. They are manifested in the independent testing of new material, in the process of mastering new methods of action jointly with an adult and other children, but most importantly, in the formation of ideas and their implementation. In many sections of the program there are tasks aimed at developing children’s opportunities at an ever higher level to create and implement their own ideas. nine0003
Special developmental tasks for the development of various means are offered to the child in the context of specific preschool activities, mainly in a playful way. In a playful way, in the form of communication with adults and peers, the child “lives through” certain situations, connecting his emotional and cognitive experience. Along with this, the child’s own cognitive activity also develops — from children’s experimentation (N. N. Poddyakov **) to the transition to solving cognitive problems and puzzles outside the game form. The solution of these educational tasks is offered mainly through the educational areas «Cognition», «Reading fiction», «Artistic creativity». nine0003
Communicative abilities are considered by us as playing a leading role in the social development of a preschool child. Communication skills make it possible to distinguish between certain situations of communication, to understand the state of other people and one’s own state that arises in such situations, to adequately build one’s behavior on the basis of this, to own ways of expressing one’s attitude towards adults and peers.
*Dyachenko O.M. The development of the imagination of preschoolers. Moscow: International Educational and Psychological College. nineteen96 g
** Poddyakov N. N. Thinking of a preschooler. М.: Pedagogy, 1997
Communicative abilities (as opposed to cognitive ones) allow him to assign qualities that make up a special side of the human psyche: emotional and personal characteristics, personal meanings. Developed communication skills can be characterized as actions of finding a compromise in a person’s communication with other people, allowing him to satisfy his own needs and leading to meeting the needs of another person .
The formation of communication skills occurs in such forms of social life as communication, interaction, cooperation. The ability of children to agree, to observe the elementary rules of behavior in relation to each other occurs in the process of playing, communication, interaction of children in productive activities
and individual actions. nine0003
The result of the development of communicative abilities will be «socialization» as the mastery of ways of behavior that allow you to comply with communicative norms, to be accepted in society.
In the process of the child’s interaction with others, playing, performing various tasks, the formation of regulatory abilities takes place.
The specificity of regulatory abilities lies in solving special problems: acceptance, retention, a at the level of self-regulation and setting mental (cognitive or creative) tasks, practical tasks, communication tasks*. Specific means, updated when the child encounters various tasks offered by reality, will allow him to begin to focus on these tasks and keep «in the task», achieving its solution.
The essence of the actions of regulation consists in the child’s distinguishing situations of tasks, the conditions for their presentation, their retention , which allows, thanks to other abilities, to perform actions in accordance with tasks, as well as setting tasks. nine0003
Regulatory abilities have a multicomponent structure. Psychological regulation of behavior and activity can occur at the emotional and voluntary levels.
Emotional acceptance of the situation (and the tasks it proposes), identification and mastering of methods of action or rules of behavior in it becomes a special task for the child , requiring the mastery of special means and actions .
* Bulycheva A.I. To the problem of the development of general abilities of preschoolers // Anthropological foundations of developing preschool education. M.: Russian University of Friendship of Peoples, 2009
The emotional component of regulation is actualized when a discrepancy is found between the goals, desires of the subject and the goals offered in the form of tasks in a situation in which a person finds himself. The resulting tension leads to the creation and then memorization of a certain emotional image (A.V. Zaporozhets *), reflecting, on the one hand, the features of the situation (its appearance, attributes), on the other hand, bearing the actual emotional “coloring” reflecting the meaning of what is happening for a person. The nature of the emotional, but rather emotional-semantic image, will depend on how the child perceives the situation in which he finds himself, what experience he has of being in such situations, what meaning they have for the child. nine0003
An arbitrary component of regulation presupposes conscious acceptance and retention of a task, a mode of action leading to the achievement of a result — action in a certain way, according to a rule. Rules can be offered to a child in different forms: in the form of an adult’s own behavior acting as a model, in the form of verbal instructions, in the form of various figurative means (pictures, signs).
Voluntary behavior is considered a neoplasm of primary school age, which develops due to learning activities. At the same time, the weak development of volitionality usually makes it difficult for a child to study at school. However, the development of elements of voluntary behavior is also possible at preschool age when performing activities that are specific and accessible to a preschooler. This may be the performance of children’s activities (play, design, etc.), adequate behavior, actions with objects, elements of labor activity, and much more. It is important that the way of performing an activity, the rules of behavior or actions with objects become special task for an adult raising a child.
Rules can be offered to a child in various forms: in the form of the adult’s own behavior as a model; in the form of a verbal instruction; in the form of various figurative means (pictures, signs).
Regulatory action «holding the task» on cognition and communication will be accompanied by a number of specific actions:
— actions in accordance with the condition, rule,
— control of the execution process,
— comparison of the result with a specific or imagined imaginary sample
*Zaporozhets A.V. Development of emotional regulation of actions in a child // Selected psychological works: In 2 volumes. T.1. Mental development of the child. M.: Pedagogy, 1986.
The development of regulatory abilities involves the conduct of special educational work, both with children and with adults around them. The development of regulatory abilities is achieved in the program thanks to educational work in all sections, thanks to the special position of the educator, focused on the development of children, cooperation, personality-oriented interaction. At the same time, educational work on the section «Social development» aims to develop children’s self-regulation and, as a result, implies the development of regulatory abilities. nine0003
The purpose of the program is
— the development of the general abilities of preschoolers: mental, communicative, regulatory in the process of specific preschool activities, their communication with adults and other children, cognitive research activities and other forms of activity that provide positive socialization, motivation of children contributing to the formation of a common culture of the individual, their positive socialization in society;
— protection and strengthening of the physical and mental health of children, including protection and strengthening of the physical and mental health of children, including their emotional well-being, ensuring equal opportunities for the full development of each child during preschool childhood, regardless of place of residence, gender , nation, language, social status,
— ensuring the continuity of the goals, objectives and content of preschool general and primary general education.
The goals of the program can be achieved as a result of solving tasks
— to create educational situations that contribute to the mastery of children by specific means and methods underlying cognitive, communicative and regulatory abilities, in accordance with their age and individual characteristics,
— organizations of a favorable developing subject-spatial environment,
— providing psychological and pedagogical support for teachers in order to master the methods of positive communication with children, methods and techniques of developing education, methods for developing cognitive, communicative and regulatory abilities of preschoolers,
— providing psychological and pedagogical support for the family and increasing the competence of parents representatives) in matters of development and education, protection and promotion of children’s health, positive socialization; nine0003
Thus, the program is aimed at developing the general abilities of preschoolers: mental, communicative, regulatory in the process of specific preschool activities, in the process of their communication with adults and other children in all educational areas.
At the same time, full-fledged mental development is impossible without ensuring the life itself, the health of the child, general physical development, depending on the characteristics of culture, the specific conditions of the child’s life. To ensure the life and development of the child in preschool childhood, a preschool institution takes on some of these tasks. nine0003
The program involves educational work with normally developing children. At the same time, the principles of educational work, which consist in creating conditions for the development of the general abilities of preschoolers, can also be applied in work with children with special needs. However, the methodological support of such work, according to the authors of the program, should be focused on the developmental features of such children and can only be created by specialists — speech pathologists. There are no such specialists in the team of authors of the «Development» program. In addition, the variety of features of the mental development of children, which differs from the norm, does not allow doing this in one, unified way (for example, for children with mental retardation, autism, hearing or vision impairments, speech therapy problems, etc.