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Gloria Fuertes is a Spanish poet, born in Madrid and died in the same city. He is associated with the Generation 50 literary movement as well as postism .
Writer for the media, she has become especially known in Spain since the 1970s through her collaborations in Spanish television programs for children and young people such as Un globo, dos globos, tres globos . This fame overshadowed his recognition as a post-war Spanish poet. In her poetry, she advocates equality between women and men, pacifism, and environmentalism. In 2017, on the occasion of the celebration of the centenary of his birth, a reassessment of his role in 20th-century Spanish poetry was carried out.
Gloria Fuerts was born into a humble family in Madrid’s Lavapies city on on Calle de la Espada. Her father was a janitor and her mother was a seamstress and housekeeper. She attended the Women’s Vocational Education Institute to earn degrees in shorthand, typing, hygiene, and childcare. Her interest in literature began at the age of five, when she was already writing and illustrating her own stories. This interest then persists despite the lack of incentives from his family. In 1932, at the age of fourteen, she published her first poem: « Nines, Juventud, Vehez . When her mother died in 1934, she began working in metal workshops, where she combined accounting duties with writing poetry. A year later, in 1935, she published her first poems in a children’s magazine and gave her first poetic recitals for Radio Madrid. It was the moment when she was 17 that she wrote her first poetry collection Isla Ignorada , published in 1950.
Signed copy Isla Ignorada .
From 1938 to 1958 she was a secretary in the office. From 1939 to 1953, she combined this work with the work of the editor-in-chief of the children’s magazine Maravillas (es), in which she published stories, comics and short stories weekly. Poems for children. As part of her work as an editor, in 1942 she met the poet Carlos Edmundo de Ori — one of the founders of «Postism» — when he sent a sonnet to the magazine, and Fuertes decided to publish it. Through this contact, a relationship of friendship and intellectual exchange is established before they become a couple for a while.
In addition, between 1940 and 1953 she began to collaborate with children’s magazines, Pelayos , Chicos (es) , Chicas: la revista de los 17 años , Chiquitito with youth applications, y Pelayos (es) ( Maravillas ). newspaper Arriba , in which she published comics about Coletas and Pelines , a nine-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy, who achieved a high level of popularity among children.
In 1949 she published the book Canciones para niños, and in 1950 Pirulí (Versos para párvulos) also organized the first mobile library for children from small villages.
Along with her participation in children’s literature in magazines, plays and performances of poetry, in 1951 she founded the women’s group Versos con faldas with Maria Dolores de Pablos and Adelaide Las Santas, which actively ran readings for two years. and solo concerts in cafes and bars in Madrid. She has also contributed to adult magazines such as Rumbos , Poesía Española and El Pájaro de Paja . In 1950, together with Antonio Gala, Julio Mariscal and Rafael Mir, she founded the poetic review Arquero, which she directed until 1954.
In 1952, she staged her first performance in verse, Prometeo , at the Theater of the Institute of Hispanic Culture, which won the Valle Inclan Prize.
From 1955 to 1960 she studied librarianship and English at the International Institute of Madrid, where she met an American Hispanic, Phyllis Turnbull, with whom she had a relationship for fifteen years. She has been a librarian there since she was 19.58 to 1961 when she received an American Fulbright Scholarship to teach Spanish literature at Bucknell University. In her own words, this is the first time she has set foot in a university. She then taught at Mary Baldwin College and Bryn Mawr College until 1963 when she returned to Spain. Upon her return from the United States, she taught Spanish to Americans at the International Institute. In 1972, she received a new grant from the Juan March Foundation for Children’s Literature.
From the mid-1970s, TVE broadcast his collaborations on several programs for children, such as Un globo, dos globos, tres globos , La mansión de los Plaff and La cometa blanca , which brought him great popularity as a children’s poet, overshadowing his classical poetic career. Indeed, his work on television has been repeatedly awarded. From this period his activity is continuous with readings, recitals and tributes, continuing to publish poetry for both children and adults. At 19In 86, the actors of Martes and Trece pay tribute to him with a parody of New Year’s Special.
Her last trip outside of Madrid took her to Miahadas (Cáceres) in the spring of 1998, a few months before her death, to present the book she foreshadowed, Beso on the back of her unconditional friend Julio Santiago, poet and artist from this region .
Gloria Fuertes died of lung cancer and was buried in Cementerio Sur in Madrid. In her will, she bequeathed her fortune (100 million pesetas) to an orphanage known as Ciudad de los Muchachos (es) of Father Jesus Silva. In 2001, his remains were transferred to the La Paz cemetery in Alcobendas (Madrid).
Although she has always described herself as «self-taught» and «poetically uneducated», critics have linked Gloria Fuertes’ name to the literary movement of the 1950s generation and to postism.
It is associated with the 50 generation thanks to the fact that it was published at that time and the poetry of moral condemnation shared among others by Zelaya, Blas de Otero, José Hierro, García Nieto, Angel Crespo or Buosogno, whose themes are: loneliness, pain, social injustice, love, God, death … If the poems of Gloria Fuertes and these poets are about pain, sadness and love, the main difference between Gloria Fuertes and these poets and other «postists» The fact is that the latter did not know how to get through to people just like Gloria Fuertes. She said that «before counting syllables, poets must tell what is going on.»
In 1942 she met Carlos Edmundo de Ori, who united the poetic movement called Postism and collaborated in his magazines and La Cerbatana with Ori, Eduardo Cicharro and Silvano Sernesi.
In his poetic work there is no clear division between autobiography and fiction. Sometimes the poet created a fictitious «Gloria», to which she attributed apparently real data, but which were not reliable, while in other cases she included autobiographical information. She talked about her own experiences and those of others, some of which were banned by Franco’s censorship. Game, disguise and surprise were some of his main weapons.
Postisme Gloria Fuerts consisted of a Demystifying poetic attitude of humor that the poet used as a means to create critical reality and discover the truth of things. The Civil War left a deep mark on her. His opposition to war, his protest against the absurdity of civilization is categorically present in his poems. As she herself said, «without the tragedy of war, I would never have written poetry.»
Thanks to her military experience, Gloria Fuertes’ work is characterized by irony in the face of universal problems such as love, pain, death and loneliness. All this is seasoned with strange metaphors and linguistic games, full of charm, freshness and simplicity, which give his poems great musicality and a rhythm close to oral speech.
President of the Gloria Fuertes Foundation, Paloma Porpetta, classifies Gloria Fuertes as «prime literature», noting that Fuertes and Gabriela Mistral are the only women included in the Norton anthology, which brings together one hundred language poets. Spanish. Jaime Gil de Biedma has also chosen her poems from the main collections where she interacts with Gabriel Celaya (her friend), José Agustín Goitisolo or José Hierro. Francisco Nieva (another of his friends) praised his «invention of images, turns and sounds full of qualities and surprises».
In addition, Gloria Fuertes was one of the first post-war female poets, including Carmen Conde and Angela Figuera.
Gloria Fuertes is the only woman included in Collioure’s collection of poems.
According to University of Texas researcher Sharon Keefe Ugalde, Gloria Fuertes’ spoken language, simple and deliberately casual, distances her from the canonical poetic model, especially among the so-called cultural poets. Some experts point out that other circumstances that prevented Gloria Fuertes from being recognized were that she was a woman, a lesbian, and poor. Reyes Vila-Belda of Indiana University notes that she opened a poetic space for the concerns of the silent: women, workers, and the poor.
She defended women’s rights, starting with the right to read, write, work or be a poet at a historical moment when they were reduced to domestic space. “Being a writer meant going against the grain and it took a lot of effort to find alternative paths in the face of closed doors. Many of her poems testify to the gender inequalities of her time and serve as a way to combat imposed restrictions. says Keefe Ugalde.
Gloria Fuertes also challenged the traditional female models of the Francoist era with the introduction of a new female model. “Francoism promoted a patriarchal society and a conservative culture that excluded women from professional and cultural life,” says Vila-Belda. “Fuertes has introduced a new female model, celebrating its marginality and thereby confirming its identity. Thus, he became one of the links that allow us to catch up with modernity and follow it.”
The publication in 1978 of the book «Three Magi Queens: Melchior, Gaspard and Baltasar» also fits into this context and is now considered a classic of children’s literature. Given the inability of Melchior, Gaspard, and Balthazar to travel to Bethlehem, their wives filled in for them on the trip and played a prominent role in history, in contrast to post-war society that rejected women at home. Mothers are also wise because the fathers have gone to war and someone has to follow the star and worship the child with gifts.
In addition to her fight for gender equality, Fuertes was a pacifist, speaking out against the Vietnam and Cambodian wars, as well as the Spanish Civil War. He is also committed to protecting the environment.
Gloria Fuertes portrays herself in her poetic autobiography as a loner, nun, lesbian, heartthrob, celibate, feminist, smoker, pacifist, purist and poet.
Her first love was Manolo, her fiancé, who volunteered for the war and never returned. She talks about him in « Carta de la eme» .
She also had an important relationship with her writing partner in postism, Carlos Edmundo de Ori, who shone through in her poetry ( Los brazos desiertos) .
However, her great love was Phyllis Turnbull, a Latin American woman whom she met in 1953 at the headquarters of the International Institute in Madrid. Their relationship lasted 15 years. Paloma Porpetta, president of the Gloria Fuertes Foundation, explains that the poet made no secret of it: “She made no secret of her lesbianism, her friends knew him, and although his work speaks of love in general, she sometimes mentions her lesbianism, as she once said . : «I was called the patroness of forbidden loves.»
His relationship with Phyllis ended in 1970, a year before the Hispanic’s death. Gloria was devastated. She lost weight and expressed her pain in poetry. This was another loss she complained about in her autobiography Nota.
Her lesbianism is subtly reflected in such poems as « Lo que me enerva «, « Me siento abierta a todo «, « A Jenny «, etc.
Ceramic plate, Estepona
Gloria Fuentes — First Prize for Children’s Poetry Poster (2017)
The work of Gloria Fuertes, which received recognition and study abroad, was primarily analyzed by American Latin American critics (Andrew P. Debicki, Mandlove, Sherno, Persin, Cappuccio, Brown. ..). A dozen specialists work in the United States and many dissertations have been defended on his work.
In addition to Madrid, where Gloria Fuertes is depicted on one of the streets, several municipalities have named streets or districts after her where a plaque has been placed in her name (Cercedilla, Córdoba, Granada, Almería, Gijón, Arrecife, Alcobendas, Estepona, San Sebastian). de los Reyes, Torrejon de Ardoz, Miraflores, La Cala del Moral).
In 2017, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of the poet, the City of Madrid created the Gloria Fuentes Prize for Children’s Poetry.
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