Datos del artista
Rembrandt fue un pintor y grabador holandés, principal partícipe del estilo barroco y la escuela flamenca, considerado el artista pictórico más talentoso y prolífico de la historia de Holanda.
Las pinturas de Rembrandt no sólo ofrecen una propuesta estética, además están repletas de significado y sencillez. Especialista en escenas tradicionales y bíblicas, huía de la ostentación estética y hasta provocadora que otros artistas barrocos proferían.
Rembrandt nunca encasilló sus obras en un estilo, ni se acomodó a una corriente artística. Lejos de esto era Él mismo quien lideraba tendencias, innovaba y cambiaba su forma de pintar constantemente.
Alrededor de sus cuadros se han hecho toda clase de estudios históricos, teológicos y científicos: las temáticas, la composición de los pigmentos, la forma de las pinceladas, los colores, etc.
La obra pictórica de Rembrandt está expuesta en los museos de mayor renombre del mundo, entre ellos: El Prado, Louvre, Hermitage y MET New York, entre otros. Aquí presentamos sus 12 cuadros más importantes. Para comprar accede a la tienda a la sección cuadros de Rembrandt al óleo.
«El retorno del hijo pródigo»
La obra «El Retorno del hijo pródigo» fue pintada entre los años 1963 y 1965 por el neerlandés Rembrandt, pintor y grabador, máximo exponente del estilo barroco.
Los elementos del cuadro no han sido dejados al azar, se han realizado estudios de cada detalle, expresiones de los rostros, posturas corporales, colores e iluminación, cada aspecto está minuciosamente pensado por el pintor, atendiendo a su propia Fe.
La escena representa la parábola del hijo pródigo, narrada en el capítulo 15 del Evangelio de San Lucas, concretamente, cuando el joven arrepentido y avergonzado regresa a la casa del padre, después de haberse gastado toda su hacienda.
Al verlo a lo lejos, el padre corre a buscarlo con alegría, y el hijo se postra ante él. Para explicar el acontecimiento el padre grita a todos: «Este hijo mío estaba muerto y ha vuelto a la vida, estaba perdido y ha sido encontrado». Mientras, el hermano mayor junto con sus amigos, lo miran con desprecio.
Actualmente la obra se encuentra expuesta en la pinacoteca del Museo del Hermitage, San Petersburgo, Rusia.
A lo largo de su carrera Rembrandt realizó numerosos autorretratos, este es el más ampliamente conocido, fue pintado en 1659 y se encuentra actualmente en la Galería Nacional de Arte, Washington D. C.
«La conspiración de Claudius Civilis»
Obra de Rembrandt considerada como la más completa en su narrativa y simbología, presenta un trozo de la historia del siglo 1 a. C. Sobre un pequeño pueblo que conspiraba contra el gran imperio romano y su césar. Pintada en 1662, actualmente en el Nationalmuseum, Estocolmo.
«La tormenta en el mar de Galilea»
Esta es la principal pieza sustraída en el robo de cuadros más célebre de la historia (ver en Wikipedia), que tubo lugar en el Museo Isabella Stewart Gardner, Bostón. Sólo se conserva una fotografía de buena resolución tomada hacia finales de la década de los 80.
Se trata de la única marina que se conoce de Rembrandt, de ahí su rareza y especial valor, pintada 1633. Representa una escena bíblica del Nuevo Testamento, donde el mar de Galilea se torna tempestuoso mientras los 12 apóstoles y Cristo navegan en una pequeña barca a remo y vela. La figura del Mesías iluminada y en paz, en medio de los discípulos desesperados, el movimiento de las aguas, la embarcación y el trabajo de claroscuro sobre el lienzo, son los elementos artísticos más destacados de la pintura.
Actualmente no se conoce el paradero del lienzo, los expertos sostienen que se encuentra actualmente en manos de mafias, y que lo utilizan como moneda de cambio y aval de pagos entre organizaciones criminales.
«Lección de anatomía del Dr. Nicolaes Tulp»
Cuadro al óleo sobre lienzo pintado por Rembrandt en 1632. Retrato grupal estilo barroco, donde 7 alumnos del célebre doctor holandés Nicolaes Tulp, están atendiendo a sus enseñanzas de anatomía.
Actualmente pertenece a la Galería Real de Pinturas Mauritshuis, Holanda.
«El rapto de Europa»
Paisaje ficticio con personajes mitológicos, pintado por Rembrandt en 1632.
Alegoría a la usanza del barroco, con elementos de claroscuro, donde se aprecia al personaje griego «Europa», siendo raptada por Zeus sobre un toro blanco. Mientras cruzan el río sus amigas espantadas y sin posibilidad de hacer otra cosa, se quedan en la orilla.
Actualmente en el Museo J. Paul Getty, California.
«La ronda de noche»
Este es el cuadro más famoso de Rembrandt, pintado en 1642, considerado como una de las obras cumbres del siglo de oro holandés. Es la obra más compleja del autor, el cuadro en sí mismo incluye todo tipo de detalles en el paisaje y los personajes, cada rostro, mirada y objeto está medido al milímetro por el creador.
Es un retrato militar múltiple, realizado por encargo, como el pintor solía hacer en estos casos, cobraba a cada una de las personas que pintaría en el lienzo.
Actualmente se encuentra en el Rijksmuseum, Ámsterdam.
«Los síndicos de los pañeros»
Óleo sobre tela del holandés Rembrandt, pintado en 1662.
Se conoce como el último gran retrato colectivo encargado al artista, en este caso se trata de 6 integrantes de una cofradía, con sus trajes holandeses autóctonos, alrededor de una mesa roja, están en lo que parece ser una lonja de telas.
Se encuentra en el Rijksmuseum de Ámsterdam.
«El festín de Baltasar»
Escena del libro del profeta Daniel (Antiguo Testamento), donde se aprecia como Dios anuncia al rey de Babilonia, la destrucción de su reino. Pintado por Rembrandt en 1635. Actualmente se encuentra en la National Gallery, Londres.
«La novia judía»
En neerlandés: Het Joodse bruidje, es una obra al óleo del período barroco pintada por Rembrandt en 1669.
A pesar del título, el cual fue inventado con posterioridad a la muerte del pintor, hoy en día aun los expertos no se ponen de acuerdo en quienes son los personajes, ni cual es la intencionalidad y significado de la pintura, ya que carece de elementos contextuales que permitan un análisis más completo.
Actualmente pertenece a la colección del Museo Nacional de Ámsterdam (Rijksmuseum).
Cuadro con una clara estética barroca, pintado por Rembrandt en 1636. Muestra una escena mitológica griega, donde la diosa Dánae recibiendo a Zeus quien se presenta en forma de agua dorada. Actualmente expuesto en el museo Hermitage.
«La resurrección de Lázaro»
Pintura barroca realizada por Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn en 1633.
Escena bíblica famosa, donde Jesús resucita a su amigo.
Actualmente pertenece al Museo de Arte del Condado de Los Ángeles, USA.
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Significado de Rembrandt
¿Qué significa Rembrandt? Existen 7 definiciones para la palabra Rembrandt. También puedes añadir tu mismo una definición para Rembrandt
Rembrandt es un cráter del planeta Mercurio de dimensiones gigantescas. El diámetro es de aproximadamente 750 km.El cráter fue descubierto por la sonda MESSENGER de la NASA en abril de 2009.Se cree [..]
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn nació el 15 de julio de 1606 en Leiden, Holanda. Fue el noveno hijo del matrimonio formado por Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn y Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck. De [..]
Rembrandt puede referirse a:
Rembrandt es una ciudad ubicada en el condado de Buena Vista en el estado estadounidense de Iowa. En el Censo de 2010 tenía una población de 203 habitantes y una densidad poblacional de 386,1 person [.. ]
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Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born in the Dutch city of Leiden in 1606 on July 15th. Rembrandt’s father was a wealthy miller, his mother baked well, was the daughter of a baker. The surname «van Rijn» literally means «from the Rhine», that is, from the Rhine River, where Rembrandt’s great-grandfathers had mills. Of the 10 children in the family, Rembrandt was the youngest. Other children followed in the footsteps of their parents, and Rembrandt chose a different path — an artistic one, and was educated at a Latin school.
At the age of 13, Rembrandt began to learn to draw, and also entered the city university. Age then did not bother anyone, the main thing at that time was knowledge at the level. Many scholars suggest that Rembrandt went to university not to study, but to get a deferment from the army.
Rembrandt’s first teacher was Jacob van Swanenbürch . In his workshop, the future artist spent about three years, then moved to Amsterdam to study with Peter Lastman. From 1625 to 1626 Rembrandt returned to his hometown, and made acquaintances with artists and some of Lastman’s students.
Nevertheless, after much deliberation, Rembrandt decided that an artist’s career should be made in the capital of Holland, and again moved to Amsterdam.
In 1634 Rembrandt married Saskia . By the time of their marriage, everyone had a good fortune (Rembrandt had paintings, and Saskia’s parents left an impressive legacy). So it wasn’t an arranged marriage. They truly loved each other passionately.
In 1635 — 1640s. wife bore Rembrandt three children, but they all died as newborns. In 1641, Saskia gave birth to a son, who was named Titus. The child survived, but, unfortunately, the mother herself died at the age of 29years.
After the death of his wife, Rembrandt was not himself, he did not know what to do, and found solace in drawing. It was in the year when his wife died that he completed the painting «Night Watch». With Titus, the young father could not cope and therefore hired a nanny for the child — Gertje Dirks, who became his mistress. About 2 years have passed, and the nanny in the house has changed. She became a young girl Hendrikje Stoffels . What happened to Gertier Dirks? She sued Rembrandt, believing that he violated the marriage contract, but she lost the argument, and was sent to a correctional home, where she spent 5 years. Released, she died a year later.
Rembrandt’s new nanny Hendrikje Stoffels gave birth to two children. Their first child, a boy, died in infancy, and their daughter Karnelia, the only one who outlived her father.
Few people know that Rembrandt had a very peculiar collection , which included paintings by Italian artists, various drawings, engravings, various busts and even weapons.
Things were going badly for Rembrandt. There was not enough money, the number of orders decreased. Therefore, the artist sold part of his collection, but this did not save him either. He was on the verge of going to prison, but the court was in his favor, so he was allowed to sell all his property and pay off his debts. He even lived for some time in a house that no longer belonged to him.
In the meantime, Titus and his mother organized a firm that traded in art objects in order to somehow help Rembrandt. In truth, until the end of his life, the artist never paid off many, but this did not spoil Rembrandt’s reputation, he remained a worthy person in the eyes of people.
Rembrandt’s death was very sad. In 1663, the artist’s beloved, Hendrikje, died. Some time later, Rembrandt buried his son Titus and his bride. In 1669year, on October 4, he himself left this world, but forever left a mark in the hearts of people who love him.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn — the most famous painter, etcher and draftsman of the «Golden Age». Universal recognition and fame, a sharp decline and poverty — this is how the biography of the great genius of art can be characterized. Rembrandt sought to convey the soul of a person through portraits, many works of the artist, shrouded in mystery, are still rumored and guessed.
The beginning of the 17th century was calm for the Dutch state, which gained independence as a republic at the time of the revolution. Industrial production, agriculture and trade developed in the country.
Rembrandt, who was born on July 15, 1607, spent his childhood in a house on the Wedeshteg in the ancient city of Leidin, located in the province of South Holland.
The boy grew up in a large family, in which he was the sixth child. The father of the future artist Harmen van Rijn was a wealthy man who owned a mill and a malt house. Among other things, Van Rein had two more houses in his property, and he also received a significant dowry from his wife Cornelia Neltier, so the large family lived in abundance. The mother of the future artist was the daughter of a baker and was versed in cooking, so the family table abounded with delicious dishes.
Despite their wealth, Harmen’s family lived modestly, observing strict Catholic rules. The artist’s parents, even after the Dutch Revolution, did not change their attitude to faith.
Rembrandt was kind to his mother throughout his life. This is expressed in a portrait painted in 1639, which depicts a wise old woman with a kind and slightly sad look.
Social events and the luxurious life of wealthy people were alien to the family. It is reasonable to assume that in the evenings the van Rijns gathered at the table and read books and the Bible: this was what most Dutch citizens did during the Golden Age.
The windmill that Harmen owned was located on the banks of the Rhine: before the boy’s gaze, a beautiful landscape of an azure river opened up, which is illuminated by the rays of the sun, making their way through a small window of the building and passing through fogs of flour dust. Perhaps, due to childhood memories, the future artist learned to skillfully master colors, light and shadow.
As a child, Rembrandt grew up as an observant boy. The open spaces of the streets of Leidin provided sources of inspiration: in the trading markets one could meet dissimilar people of different nationalities and learn how to sketch their faces on paper.
Initially, the boy went to a Latin school, but he was not interested in learning. Young Rembrandt did not like the exact sciences, preferring drawing.
The future artist’s childhood was happy, as his parents saw his son’s hobbies, and when the boy was 13 years old, he was sent to study with the Dutch artist Jacob van Swanenburg. Little is known from the biography of Rembrandt’s first teacher, the representative of late Mannerism did not have a huge artistic heritage, which is why it is almost impossible to trace Jacob’s influence on the development of Rembrandt’s style.
In 1623 the young man went to the capital, where the painter Pieter Lastman became his second teacher, who taught Rembrandt painting and engraving for half a year.
Training with a mentor was successful, impressed by Lastman’s paintings, the young man quickly mastered the technique of drawing. Bright and saturated colors, the play of shadows and light, as well as scrupulous elaboration of even the smallest details of the flora — that’s what Peter conveyed to the eminent student.
In 1627, Rembrandt returned from Amsterdam to his native city. Confident in his abilities, the artist, together with his friend Jan Lievens, opens his own school of painting, which in a short time gained popularity among the Dutch. Lievens and Rembrandt were on a par with each other, sometimes young people carefully worked on one canvas, putting part of their own style into the drawing.
The twenty-year-old young artist gained fame for his detailed early works, which include:
The young man continues to draw inspiration from the streets of the city, walking through the squares in order to meet a random passerby and capture his portrait with a chisel on a wooden board. Rembrandt also makes a series of engravings with self-portraits and portraits of numerous relatives.
Thanks to the talent of a young painter, Rembrandt was noticed by the poet Konstantin Huygens, who admired the canvases of van Rijn and Lievens, calling them promising artists. “Judas returns thirty pieces of silver,” written by a Dutchman in 1629, he compares with the famous canvases of Italian masters, but finds flaws in the drawing. Thanks to the connections of Constantine, Rembrandt soon acquires rich art admirers: because of the mediation of Haygens, the Prince of Orange commissions several religious works from the artist, such as Christ before Pilate (1636).
The real success for the artist comes in Amsterdam. June 8, 1633 Rembrandt meets the daughter of a wealthy burgher Saskia van Uylenbürch and wins a strong position in society. The artist painted most of the canvases while in the capital of the Netherlands.
Rembrandt is inspired by the beauty of his beloved, so he often paints her portraits. Three days after the wedding, van Rijn painted a woman with a wide-brimmed hat in silver pencil. Saskia appeared in the paintings of the Dutchman in a cozy home environment. The image of this plump-cheeked woman appears on many canvases, for example, the mysterious girl in the painting «Night Watch» strongly resembles the artist’s beloved.
In 1632, Rembrandt was glorified by the painting “The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp”. The fact is that van Rijn departed from the canons of standard group portraits, which were depicted with faces turned towards the viewer. Extremely realistic portraits of the doctor and his students made the artist famous.
In 1635, the famous painting based on the biblical story «The Sacrifice of Abraham» was painted, which was appreciated in secular society.
In 1642, van Rijn received a commission from the Shooting Society for a group portrait to decorate the new building with canvas. The painting was mistakenly called «Night Watch». It was stained with soot, and only in the 17th century, researchers came to the conclusion that the action unfolding on the canvas takes place in the daytime.
Rembrandt thoroughly depicted every detail of the musketeers on the move: as if time stopped at a certain moment when the militias left the dark courtyard so that van Rijn captured them on the canvas.
Customers did not like that the Dutch painter moved away from the canons that developed in the 17th century. Then group portraits were ceremonial, and the participants were portrayed full face without any static.
According to scientists, this painting was the reason for the bankruptcy of the artist in 1653, as it scared off potential clients.
Rembrandt believed that the true goal of the artist is to study nature, so all the paintings of the painter turned out to be too photographic: the Dutchman tried to convey every emotion of the depicted person.
Like many talented masters of the Golden Age era, Rembrandt has religious motifs. On the canvases of van Rijn, not just captured faces are drawn, but entire plots with their own history.
In the painting «The Holy Family», which was painted in 1645, the faces of the characters are natural, the Dutchman seems to want to transfer viewers to the cozy atmosphere of a simple peasant family with the help of a brush and paints. On the works of van Rijn, one cannot trace a certain pomposity. Karl Marx said that Rembrandt painted the Madonna in the form of a Dutch peasant woman. Indeed, throughout his life, the artist drew inspiration from the people around him, it is possible that on the canvas a woman, copied from a maid, is lulling a baby to sleep.
Like many artists, Rembrandt is full of mysteries: after the death of the creator, researchers pondered for a long time about the secrets of his paintings.
For example, van Rijn worked on the painting Danae (or Aegina) for 11 years, starting in 1636. The canvas depicts a young maiden after awakening from sleep. The plot is based on the ancient Greek myth of Danae, daughter of the king of Argos and mother of Perseus.
Researchers of the canvas did not understand why the naked maiden did not look like Saskia. However, after the x-ray, it became clear that Danae was originally painted in the image of Eilenbürch, but after the death of his wife, van Rijn returned to the picture and changed Danae’s facial features.
There were also disputes among art historians about the heroine depicted on the canvas. Rembrandt did not sign the title of the painting, and the interpretation of the plot was hampered by the absence of a golden rain, according to legend, in the form of which Zeus appeared to Danae. Also, scientists were embarrassed by the engagement ring on the girl’s ring finger, which was not consistent with ancient Greek mythology. Rembrandt’s masterpiece «Danae» is in the Russian Hermitage Museum.
The Jewish Bride (1665) is another enigmatic painting by van Rijn. This name was given to the canvas at the beginning of 19century, but it is still unknown who is depicted on the canvas, because a young girl and a man are dressed in ancient costumes reminiscent of biblical clothes. Also popular is the painting «The Return of the Prodigal Son» (1669), which took 6 years to create.
Speaking about the style of Rembrandt’s painting, the artist used a minimum of colors, and at the same time managed to make the paintings «alive», thanks to the play of light and shadows.
Van Rijn also successfully manages to depict facial expressions: all the people on the canvases of the great painter seem to be alive. For example, in the portrait of an old man — Rembrandt’s father (1639) every wrinkle is visible, as well as a wise and sad look.
In 1642, Saskia died of tuberculosis, the beloved had a son, Titus (three other children died in infancy), with whom Rembrandt maintained friendly relations. At the end of 1642, the artist meets with a young special Gertier Dirks. Saskia’s parents were upset by the way the widower handled his dowry while living in luxury. Dirks later sues his lover for breaking his promise to marry her. From the second woman, the artist had a daughter, Cornelia.
In 1656, due to financial difficulties, Rembrandt declares himself bankrupt and leaves for a secluded house on the outskirts of the capital.
Van Rijn’s life did not go on growing, but on the contrary, went into decline: a happy childhood, wealth and recognition were replaced by departed customers and a beggarly old age. The mood of the artist can be traced on his canvases. So, living with Saskia, he paints joyful and sunny pictures, for example, “Self-portrait with Saskia on his knees” (1635). On the canvas, van Rijn laughs with sincere laughter, and a radiant light illuminates the room.
If earlier the artist’s paintings were detailed, then at the stage of late creativity, Rembrandt uses broad strokes, and the sun’s rays are replaced by darkness.
The painting «The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis», painted in 1661, was not paid for by the customers, because the faces of the participants in the conspiracy were not scrupulously worked out, unlike van Rijn’s previous works.