Maya para niñas: Mayas Ninas | MercadoLibre 📦

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Nombres mayas para niñas (femeninos) y su significado

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Feb 26

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Los nombres de origen mexicano guardan en su estructura muchos significados, que sobre todo tienen una unión con la naturaleza, el universo y la fuerza. Estamos hablando de nombres que surgen de culturas que marcaron la historia de un país y que lograron en su momento posicionarse como las más importantes en Mesoamérica. Por ello queremos compartirte un listado de nombres mayas para niña, donde seguramente descubrirás el nombre ideal para tu bebé. Encontrarás a continuación nombres preciosos que sobre todo resaltarán su belleza y fuerza.

Origen de nombres mayas para bebés.

Empecemos por explorar un poco de la cultura maya y su conexión con los nombres que te presentaremos a continuación. La cultura maya se extendió por el sur de México, Guatemala, Belice y parte de Honduras y El Salvador. Una de las culturas más representativas, sobre todo por su inteligencia. Logró dominar el lenguaje a través de la escritura de jeroglíficos, fueron los mejores y sobresalientes en aspectos como matemáticas, astronomía, artes y arquitectura.

Los nombres dentro de esta cultura fueron cruciales, pues representaban la suerte del bebé, aunque también algunos otros señalaban características físicas o de personalidad. Los mayas realizaban algunas ceremonias parecidas a lo que hoy conocemos como bautismo. Una vez que los bebés nacían se les llevaba con el sacerdote, quien le otorgaba un nombre. Este se relacionaba con el signo que tuviera, es decir, señalaba si el bebé nacía con buena o mala fortuna. Normalmente este nombre era temporal y se les modificaba durante la ceremonia de la pubertad. Para ellos representaba un nuevo nacimiento «caputzihil» que era aproximadamente a los 13 años.

En específico los nombres mayas para niñas solían iniciar con X y a los que se les agregaba los nombres de animales o seres de la naturaleza. Algo que también resulta interesante, es el hecho de que como lo verás a continuación, son nombres muy diferentes a los que estamos acostumbrados, empezando por la estructura que se le da, pero también por el sonido.  Se debe a que en las lenguas mayas se utilizan  sonidos que se producen con la obstrucción del aire, después de su pronunciación. Estas características pueden ayudar a cubrir el deseo que surge en muchas ocasiones, que el nombre sea único, poco escuchado y mantenga un significado especial.

 

También te puede interesar 30 Nombres en griego para niñas (femeninos) y su significado

 

Ahora que conocimos más de esta cultura vayamos a los nombres.

Nombres mayas para niñas y su significado:

  • Kiichpam: «Bella, belleza»; empecemos por un nombre que definitivamente se ajusta a tu pequeña. Una niña hermosa tanto en su interior como en el exterior. Aunque puede ser sencillo en muchas ocasiones, este nombre resulta ser muy significativo, puesto que es sencillo de recordar y representa el sentimiento que tenían los padres al elegir el nombre.
  • Kóokay: «Luciérnaga», este nombre está relacionado con una leyenda maya muy conocida. De acuerdo a lo que muestra dicha leyenda, la luciérnaga se relaciona con una pequeña astuta, de buen corazón y que será recompensada con un brillo inigualable.
  • Mayel: «perfumada o de aroma suave», un nombre fuertemente enlazado con la delicadeza, una presencia agradable, pero muy sutil, es decir una nena con humildad, agradable y de ternura inigualable en su ser.
  • Náayten: «Suéñame», probablemente un nombre que dejará sorprendidos a todos aquellos que pregunten por su significado. Ciertamente tu pequeña será inolvidable y sumamente amada por todas las personas que la conocerán.
  • Chamaltuux: «La del hoyuelo hundido.» Si tu bebé tiene un precioso hoyuelo en la mejilla, definitivamente puede ser un nombre ideal para ella. Una niña que mostrará siempre su sonrisa, que será su carta de presentación ante la vida. A demás que tiene el efecto de provocar ternura y empatía.
  • Nikté: Flor.
  • Nikte Óol: Alma florida.

Las flores un símbolo sin duda de delicadeza, belleza y vida. Pero también en el mundo indígena hace referencia al respeto y la preocupación por el bienestar de los dioses. Es decir estos nombres de flores permiten una conexión con ese mundo, en específico con la naturaleza, tomando en cuenta el tipo de deidades que se tenían.

  • Sáastal: Su traducción sería algo parecido a una «Aurora o un Amanecer».  Es decir alguien que ilumina, con muchos colores en su ser, pero ante todo belleza que puede provocar mucha paz interior.
  • Wayak Óol: «De espíritu soñador». Me parece que es uno de los nombres más revolucionarios para su época, puesto que reconoce la manera en que las mujeres pueden soñar. Donde la fuerza de su espíritu la puede llevar a lugares preciosos, grandes e inimaginables.
  • Yaamaj: «Amor, amar».
  • Yaamil: «Ser amada».

El amor es uno de los sentimientos más hermosos e importantes que existen para los seres humanos. Hay un millón de significados que pudieran dársele, pero todos siempre llevan a los mejores aspectos que una persona puede tener. Regalarle ese significado tan grande tu pequeña es a su vez una manera de mostrarle el cariño que tienes por ella.

  • Yéeybil: «Elegida o escogida». Este es un nombre neutro, pero que es mayormente retomado para las mujeres. Una persona que encontrará un sentido de vida valioso, un objetivo que tendrá un impacto en su al rededor.
  • Amaité: «Rostro de cielo». Un significado sencillo, que refleja ternura, amor e inmensidad.

Esperamos que estos nombres sean de tu agrado y agradecemos mucho que nos permitas ser parte de algo tan hermoso como la elección de nombre para tu bebita.

Fuentes:

  • Gesto y ritual. Lecturas sobre el bautismo entre los mayas contemporáneos. Enrique Javier Rodríguez Balam.
  • Historia documental de México 1. Los mayas. Alfredo Barrera Vázquez.
  • El misterio Maya. Vargas Pérez Pedro.
  • 400 nombres mayas del poeta Yucateco Feliciado Sanchez Chan.

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Nancy Jimenez

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Actualizado: 2022-10-31

Yes Girls Leandro Fernandez de Moratin ▷➡️ Postposmo

Yes Girls , this is a work done by Leandro Fernandez de Moratin. It is based on a comedy with elements of prose and consists of three acts. Despite its success, the play was banned by the Inquisition.

Index

  • 1 Yes girls
    • 1.1 Difficulties begin
    • 1.2 denial of evolution
    • 1.3 Participants of the work
    • 1.4 Premiere and reactions
    • 0014

    • 2 by author
    • 3 Short presentation of El-si-de-Ninasas
    • 4 Features of history
      • 4.1 von
    • 5 characters
      • 5.1 Don Carlos
      • 5.2 Donia Francis or Pakita
      • 5.3 G-G- N Diego
      • 5.4 Don Irene
      • 5.5 Rita
      • 5.6 Simon
      • 5.7 Kalamochi
    • 6 Values ​​

    and girls “DESSARY” “Yes girls” were first performed in the theater de CRUS in MADRID, Spain, Spain, Spain, Spain, Spain, Spain January 1806.

    The play was written by Leandro Fernandez de Moratin. He was personified before the onset of Lent on this day.

    The work belongs to comedies in prose form and has a three-act structure. It is important to note that, due to its content, it was banned by the Inquisition.

    El Sí de las Niñas can be regarded as one of the masterworks of this author’s orchestration, since the audience of Spanish origin received it with amazing receptivity. Even his dramatization, from the moment it was released, had the opportunity to be carried out for twenty-six days without rest until Great Lent. That, as was customary at the time, theaters had to be closed.

    It is important to note that from the very beginning El Sí de las Niñas has already been represented by well-known comedians from the Spanish provinces. Similarly, there was a group of cultural characters in Zaragoza who aspired to perform the work in private theaters.

    It should be noted that there were four issues typical of El Cí de las Niñas in Madrid, all made for 1806. All these performances were made because the public constantly demanded that the story be presented in the theatre.

    Trouble Begins

    The overwhelming success of El Sí de las Niñas caused influential people in the society of the time to begin to see flaws that would allow it to be banned. Since then, celebrations based on elements other than religious have not been widespread.

    It was after this that they devalued the important influence of those who develop the art of comedy. This is mainly due to the fact that the work presented elements of delusions and vices, which symbolized the high society of that time. Showcasing items that were based on their own interests.

    The dramatic decline of the work meant that critics did not have much opportunity to write negative features of the story. However, there were warnings and in turn sightings based on the elements of El Si de las Niñas. Learn a little more about the literature with the article La Gaviota

    After that, those who set out to distort the elements of the illustration, focusing on the population living in ignorance, achieved a ban on the work. Which brought with it a large amount of denunciations made in the courts of the Inquisition.

    It is even important to mention that among the many involved in this situation, the minister who was entrusted with directing the development of language studies stands out. Post indicated that the author ruined his writing life after writing and in turn publishing Yes Girls. This is because he described him as a character who does not keep the laws of God and therefore must suffer a great punishment.

    denial of evolution

    All the obstacles that led to the prohibition of work during the time of the Inquisition. This was nothing more than an attempt to prevent cultural evolution and progress in Spain.

    Because all those who developed cultural works could bring with them the discovery of hidden truths that prevented the promotion of literature and art. Leaving behind the ignorance of the people. The result, which did not suit the Spanish high command.

    Participants in the work

    It is important to keep in mind that, despite the threats, the actors involved in this play sought to prove the story. Leaving obstacles behind, giving the public the importance of El C de las Niñas.

    In addition, it should be noted that the actors who played dona Irene, dona Francisca and don Diego did their job in a way that deserved more recognition.

    The actors who represented the above-mentioned characters are Maria Ribera, who presented her character with complete naturalness, emphasizing the grace of the person she played. Josefa Virg and Andrés Prieto performed equally well.

    All this is also distinguished by the fact that the author managed to get into his work not only talented actors, but also people who had great intellect and, in turn, were ready to spread the importance of culturalization of the people.

    Premiere and reactions

    The author of El Si de las Niñas, Leandro Fernandez de Moratin, wrote this work in 1801. This was the first work he wrote after The New Comedy, El Baron and Mojigata, which were released after El Cie de Girl.

    Development to reach its premiere is somewhat late. The post has dedicated itself to its meticulous execution in order to be able to publish it in a concrete and high-profile manner.

    It is important to bear in mind that El Sí de las Niñas began its rehearsals in the first month of 1806 in the premises of the Teatro de la Cruz. After careful preparation, it manages to be presented to the public on the 24th of the same month.

    It should be noted that this work was successful not only thanks to the public. Post is considered the most widely recognized work of its time. This leads experts to call it the greatest theatrical success of the entire century.

    The work had the opportunity to be presented without interruption for twenty-six days. According to the data, it attracted about 37.000 viewers. What is remarkable, because at that time it was a quarter of the adult population of Madrid.

    Author

    The resounding success of the work led to the complete departure of Leandro Fernandez de Moratin from the stage. Emphasizing that the only works in which the author participated after El Si de las Niñas were adaptations of some of the works of the French Moliere called «Escuela de los Husdos» and «El Medico a Palos».

    Despite the actions taken by Fernandez de Moratin, El C de las Niñas still evoked a feeling of hatred, offset by other manifestations of madness. This is because there are elements in the work that offer viewers the importance of illustration. It is also emphasized that the authorities should begin to act from rationalistic positions. All in search of the development of a better society.

    It is important to note that by 1815, after the restoration of the power of King Ferdinand VII, the Inquisition also managed to ban La Mojigata, because according to their criteria it contained inappropriate elements.

    It should be mentioned that the ban on the works of Fernandez de Moratin was renewed in 1823. After that, the Spanish public did not have the opportunity to see the author’s masterpieces for twenty years.

    After the ban on his works was lifted, he was released again in 1838. However, as a result of the censorship of that time, it has undergone changes.

    Synopsis of El C de las Niñas

    The story begins with the image of Doña Francisca, a girl who is 16 at the beginning of the story and 17 at the end. in addition, she is compromised in her marriage to Don Diego, who is 59 years old.

    The obligation is fulfilled by the wish of her mother, Doña Irene, that her daughter should marry a good couple. However, a story problem arises because, despite Doña Irina’s wishes, Doña Francisca is completely in love with a soldier named Don Carlos.

    After this love situation, Doña Francisca’s maid, Rita, decides to help her employer. Well, he wants to see her happy with don Carlos. Which leads them to commit various actions that lead to the dissolution of the marriage.

    It is important to note that although Doña Francisca does not want this, she feels obliged to be with Don Diego, as she does not want to disobey the demands of her beloved mother, Doña Irene.

    The beauty of this job is that true love conquers all in the end. Leaving aside any aspect that goes beyond true feelings.

    Characteristics of the story

    The girl’s «yes» stands out because it was written by an author who tends to work under Enlightenment elements, so the story’s characteristics focus on these beliefs.

    Those who considered themselves thinkers of the Enlightenment did not agree with arranged marriages. With great rejection, those that were held between young girls with older men. The main elements that led them to object to this situation concerned the moral elements. These obligations have been completely removed from love. What must be a primal feeling in order to realize the union of a couple.

    Another important aspect is that often these unions do not contribute to demographic growth. This is due to the fact that in most cases they do not have offspring due to the advanced age of the man. An example of this theme is Dona Irene, who married older men and had 22 children, but only one was strong enough to survive.

    Background

    Characters such as André Vezine believed that Fernandez de Moatin was inspired by Molière’s ‘School of Women’. However, José Francisco Gatti was the one who discovered that the inspiration for the author of El Si de las Niñas was the Marivaux School of Mothers.

    It was similarly compared to what Ramon de la Cruz did under the name El viejo Burlado. However, despite its inspiration, El Sí de las Niñas is completely original.

    Characters

    This story does not have a lot of characters given the situation and in turn the period in which it takes place is very small. The characters are as follows:

    Don Carlos

    This character is Don Diego’s nephew. He stands out for such traits as his bravery with which he acts in battle and his shyness in the face of his uncle’s demands. In addition to this, he considers himself a man of great passion and courage, capable of fighting for love.

    It is important to note that Doña Francisca initially knows him as Don Felix, since the boy is introduced by that name when they first meet.

    Doña Francisca or Paquita

    She is a girl who guards her feelings thanks to her wonderful education. He also has a valuable obligation to fulfill his mother’s wishes. This forces her to risk the love she has for Don Carlos by wanting to marry her uncle. Another story that you can read that will captivate you is Bluebeard, a fairy tale.

    Mr. Diego

    This is a man who is 59 years old, in addition to being the fiancé of Doña Francisca, he is the uncle of Don Carlos. It should be considered important, since its existence is the reason why this struggle for reciprocal love takes place.

    It should be noted that Don Diego is the main character of the work and, in turn, is the embodiment of reason. He is a man of visible nobility and kindness.

    Dona Irene

    The mother of Doña Francisca, she develops as an authoritarian character, typical of the parents of the time when the story was created. He is the one who demands that his daughter marry a rich man like Don Diego without even worrying about what will happen to her daughter. Post is a selfish and interested woman who doesn’t care about Doña Francisca’s happiness.

    Rita

    She is Doña Francisca’s servant and has always helped her in her romantic relationship with Don Carlos. Because he believes that the love he feels is mutual, and just because of that, he has the ability to conquer everything.

    Simon

    He serves as Don Diego’s waiter.

    Calamocha

    He is a servant of Don Carlos and likes Rita, which is why he tries to win her over. Don’t stop reading Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

    Values ​​

    One of the most outstanding elements of Fernandez de Moratín in this work is that all the characters perform individual elements in a balanced way. However, dona Irén presents the biggest flaws in the play, as she is an ignorant and selfish woman who does not care about her daughter’s happiness.

    Don Diego and Don Carlos act as an analogue, who stand out for their kindness and kindness.

    what is in the Geographic Encyclopedia

    Republic of the Congo, a state in Central Africa. Former colony of France, which gained independence in 1960. In the southwest it is washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, it borders on Angola (Cabinda exclave) in the south, on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in the east, on Cameroon and the Central African Republic in the north, in the west with Gabon.
    During the colonial period called Middle Congo, the country was part of French Equatorial Africa. After receiving in 1958 the status of autonomy within the French Community, the former colony chose the name Republic of the Congo. She retained this name until 1970. In 1970-1991 — the People’s Republic of the Congo. The name Congo (Brazzaville) is often used as opposed to Congo (Kinshasa), the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    The area of ​​the country is 342 thousand square meters. km, population 2.56 million people (1996). The main cities are Brazzaville (938 thousand inhabitants, 1992), the capital of the country and a major port on the Congo River, Pointe-Noire (576 thousand), a port on the Atlantic coast.
    NATURE
    The coastline is leveled, its length is approx. 170 km. Most of the country is occupied by the accumulative plains of the Congo Basin. This is the land of vast swamps and rivers — tributaries of the Congo and Ubangi. On the periphery of the depression in the northern, western, and partly central regions, layered plains and stepped plateaus are developed. A typical example is the Bateke Plateau, 650–850 m high, where there are no rivers and many large suffusion sinkholes. To the south-west of it is the Niari-Nyanga depression, where a hilly landscape with a dense river network is developed. The largest valley of the river Niari is famous for its fertility. Further to the south-west, the Mayombe folded-block mountains rise, composed of granites, quartzites and schists, with an average height of 700–800 m. These mountains abruptly break off to a coastal lowland 50–60 km wide, which is crossed by river valleys. The largest of them, the Kuimu River, is a continuation of the Niari River.
    The climate of the country is equatorial. In the south, the dry season lasts from June to the end of September, and the wet season from March to April. It is at this time that the maximum precipitation occurs. The average annual rainfall is 1200 mm. The dry season is characterized by the lowest average monthly temperatures (21°C). The average temperature of the hottest month, March, reaches 30 ° C. The cold Benguela Current, passing near the coast, has a moderating effect on the climate. In the central part of the country, the hottest month is January and the wettest month is July. The average annual rainfall is 1600–2000 mm. The average temperature in Jambar of the coldest month, July, is 22 ° C, and the warmest, April, 24 ° C. In the north of the country, two seasons of heavy tropical rains are distinguished — in October and April. Almost none of the months is really dry or cool. The average annual rainfall reaches 2500 mm. The average temperature of the hottest month, April, at Veso station is 27°C, and the coldest, August, 25°C.
    Most of the rivers belong to the Congo basin. The exception is the river Niari-Kuilu. The length of navigable routes in the country is 3,200 km, including some sections of the Ubangi and Congo rivers. In some places, rapids and waterfalls hinder navigation.
    In the northern and mountainous regions of the Congo, tropical rainforests are common, largely swampy and periodically flooded. The total forested area is approx. 50% of the country. Tall grass savannas are widespread in the south. The tree layer there can be dense or sparse, and sometimes completely absent, but this has little effect on the nature of the herbage.
    POPULATION
    More than half of the population lives in cities. The urban population is concentrated mainly in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire and Loubomo. These cities have high unemployment rates. The Congo has a large proportion of employees, and trade unions are the most organized and influential in Equatorial Africa. The adult literacy rate reaches 63%.
    Almost 30% of the people of the Congo are the Bakongo people, who maintain close ties with fellow tribesmen living in neighboring countries. The main occupations are agriculture and trade. In the 16th century Bakongo were subjects of the Christian kingdom of the Congo, which established diplomatic relations with Portugal. The kingdom fell due to internal strife and intrigues of Europeans, including slave traders. Mboshi, who make up 12% of the country’s population, live in the northern regions on the border of savannas and forests. Previously, they were mainly engaged in fishing, now many of them have moved to cities, where, thanks to the patronage of fellow countrymen in leadership positions, they fill the ranks of employees. To the south is the Bateke settlement area (13% of the country’s population), which have preserved the traditional way of life to the greatest extent. The main occupation is agriculture, the secondary ones are hunting and fishing. The extreme north of the Congo is an area of ​​​​dispersed settlement of the Sanga and many other peoples. Some of them maintain contact with the pygmies who live in the forests and supply game in exchange for agricultural products. Wooden sculptures of the few peoples of the Congo, in particular the Batek and Babembe, had a great influence on world art. The same role was played by the famous wooden sculptures of a mother with a child, created by the masters of the Bakongo people. Congolese artists associated with the Poto-Poto school of painting in Brazzaville have created original works that are in high demand all over the world.
    The Bantu languages ​​are widely spoken in the Congo. For interethnic communication in the middle reaches of the Congo River, the Lingala language is used. The official language of the country is French.
    Public education. By the mid-1980s, most school-age children were attending school. In 1990, there were 503,000 students in primary schools, 237,000 in secondary schools, and 32,000 in vocational schools. In 1991, the National University of Brazzaville, which opened in 1972, had 12,000 students. Due to the economic crisis and civil wars in 19In the 1990s, the number of schoolchildren and students dropped sharply.
    GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
    The political movements that emerged in the Congo after the Second World War were based on a regional and ethnic basis. Until 1962, the political struggle in the country was between three parties: the African Socialist Movement (ASD), which relied on the mboshi of the northern regions, the Progressive Party of the Congo (PPK), which was supported by vili living on the coast, and the Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests (UDDIA), which used support of some Bakongo groups. After independence was declared, YUDDIA leader Fulber Yulu was elected as the country’s first president.
    In 1963 the country was shaken by powerful mass demonstrations organized by trade unions and supported by the army, students and the unemployed. As a result, President F. Yulu was dismissed. In accordance with the provisions of the new constitution, Alphonse Massamba-Deba, an associate of the former head of state in YUDDIA, became president of the Congo. The new constitution provided for the election of the legislature — the National Assembly by popular vote and the division of executive power between the president, elected by an electoral college from among the deputies of the National Assembly and members of regional and municipal councils, and the prime minister, appointed by the president. All political parties were dissolved, and the only legal political party was the National Revolutionary Movement (NRM) formed by the trade unions.
    In 1968, a group of army officers led by Marian Nguabi seized power, dispersed the National Assembly and created a new party-state body — the National Council of the Revolution. Soon the country’s constitution was adopted, and President A. Massamba-Deba was forced to resign. In 1970, after the congress of the NRM, a new constitution was promulgated. It abolished the National Assembly and approved the leading role in the government of the Congolese Party of Labor (CPT). In accordance with this constitution, the country received a new name — the People’s Republic of the Congo. The head of the CPT became the head of state and government, and people’s councils of various levels were formed. The government officially declared its adherence to the ideas of Marxism-Leninism.
    In 1973 another constitution came into effect. It provided for the creation of the People’s National Assembly, where only candidates approved by various instances of the CPT could be elected, as well as the restoration of the post of the appointed prime minister. After the assassination in 1977 of M. Nguabi, the new president of the Congo, Colonel Joachim Yombi-Opango, also canceled this constitution. Until 1979, when, under Yombi-Opango’s successor, Colonel Denis Sassou Nguesso, a new constitution was adopted, in many respects similar to the constitution of 1973, the state of emergency was maintained in the country. In 1979, 1984 and 1989 one-party parliamentary elections were held. Sassou Nguesso remained president of the country until 1991, until the system of one-party leadership of the country was abolished.
    As a result of the deep economic crisis that engulfed the country, by the end of the 1980s the CPT lost its authority. Under public pressure, an emergency congress of the CPT was held at the end of 1990, at which constitutional amendments were prepared aimed at legalizing the multi-party system and adopted in January. This was followed in February by the National Conference on Constitutional and Political Change, which continued for three months. A decision was made to establish a transitional government and a draft constitution was developed, which received approval in a referendum in March 1992. According to this constitution, the president and the legislature, the Senate of 60 senators and the National Assembly of 125 deputies, are elected in general elections. Elections for the President and deputies of the National Assembly are held every five years, and the Senate — every six years. Parliamentary elections were held in June-July 1992, and in August former Prime Minister Pascal Lissouba was elected president.
    During the period of the multi-party system, three main political movements that arose in 1991-1992, created on an ethno-regional basis, acted in the country. One of the groups, led by President Lissouba, brought together representatives of various ethnic groups from the regions of Niari, Buenza and Lekumu. The dominant role in this association was played by the president’s party, the Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (PASSD). The second political movement relied on the support of the Bakongo people living in the Pool area in the extreme southeast of the country. The leader of this group is Bernard Kolela of the Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (KDDIR), which came second in the 19 parliamentary elections.92 and 1993. The basis of the third political movement was the reformed CPT headed by Sassou Nguesso, which continued to be supported by the Mboshi and some other peoples of the north of the country. In 1991-1992, all three leaders formed their own police units from their supporters.
    The government of Lissouba did not come out of crises throughout the entire five-year period of government. When Lissouba’s parliamentary coalition collapsed in October 1992, he dissolved the National Assembly and announced the need for new elections. This step caused dissatisfaction on the part of the opposition represented by the KDDIR and the CPT, to which the ruling regime responded with repressions. May 1993 repeatedly postponed parliamentary elections were held. They were won by the party of Lissouba (PASSD), which received the majority of seats in the National Assembly. The opposition did not recognize the results of the elections, and in June-July, armed clashes broke out between the police units of Lissouba and Kolela. After a temporary lull, skirmishes resumed in November 1993-January 1994. Peace, which had been achieved with difficulty in 1994, was maintained until mid-1997, but the country’s economic situation did not improve, since the sale of oil did not bring large profits. Lissouba’s regime was struck by nepotism and played on inter-ethnic contradictions.
    In May 1997, during the presidential election campaign, a civil war broke out. Elections were scheduled for the end of July 1997. At the end of May, armed clashes began in the northern city of Owando between supporters of the former president Yombi-Opango, who served as prime minister in the government of Lissouba in 1993-1996, and supporters of the former president Sassou Nguesso. Despite the mediation of a UNESCO representative, attempts to normalize the situation were unsuccessful, as the opposition suspected the president of intending to postpone or cancel the elections. 5 June 1997 Lissouba ordered the arrest of several Sassou Nguesso supporters involved in the clashes in Owando. In response, the Sassou Nguesso militia, known as the Cobra, resisted and launched a counter-operation to remove President Lissouba. The war between the pro-government military units and the police of Lissouba, on the one hand, and the Cobra, on the other, has become widespread. Kolela was initially neutral and even tried to mediate the conflict, but in August he ordered his militia, the Niñas, to support the president. Military operations went on with varying success until, in October, a significant detachment of the Angolan army intervened in the war on the side of Sassou Nguesso. With the support of the Angolans, within a few days, the armed units of Sassou Nguesso captured the presidential palace and other strategically important objects.
    Having seized power in his own hands, Sassou Nguesso sought to strengthen his own position, without formally banning the activities of opposition parties. In January 1998 he held a national reconciliation conference to expand his political influence. At the conference, an agreement was reached to hold presidential elections in 2000 or 2001. Throughout 1998, the Lissouba and Kolela militia units continued to conduct armed operations in the southern part of the country, using every opportunity to throw another challenge to the Sassou Nguesso government. There have been repeated power outages to Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire, with rail links interrupted between them. Parts of the Angolan army at the end of 1998 still remained in Congo to support the government of Sassou Nguesso.
    Foreign policy. The Congo maintained close ties with France even after gaining independence, although relations between them deteriorated during the period of the country’s orientation towards the socialist path of development. From the mid-1960s, the Congo cooperated first with China and then with the USSR, and until the end of the 1980s received substantial assistance from these states. Using the contradictions between these socialist countries, as well as between them and France, the Congo sought to increase the volume of foreign aid.
    France also had a significant influence on the internal politics of the Congo throughout the entire post-colonial period. During the civil war of 1997, certain forces in the French government and in the Elf-Akiten oil company advocated the return to power of Sassou Nguesso. The United States actively supported the Lissouba regime in words, but their real assistance was insignificant. France feared that the Lissouba government might undermine Elf-Akiten’s influence in the Congo. With the return to power of Sassou Nguesso, Franco-Congolese relations received a new impetus. From France, the main aid came to the Congo, which included most of the imported goods. Congolese exports, mainly oil, went to the countries of Western Europe and the USA.
    Congo is a member of the UN and the Organization of African Unity, as well as the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC). In 1958-1975 the country was an associate member of the EEC.
    ECONOMY
    Approximately 60% of the able-bodied population is employed in agriculture oriented to the domestic market. Most of the employees work in the civil service, in the forestry and oil industries, on plantations where export crops are grown, and in the service sector. After the abolition at 1957 French Equatorial Africa, the Congo lost a significant part of the income that it received as the administrative center of this association of French colonial possessions, where the military base of the metropolis was located. In 1996, the country’s GDP was approx. $2.12 billion, or approximately $770 per capita. The total share of agricultural, livestock, forestry and fishery products in GDP is approx. fifteen%. Congo plays an important role as a trading and transit state in Central Africa. A significant source of income is the provision of transport, trade and other services. 35% of GDP comes from the oil industry. At 1973-1985, when world oil prices were quite high, Congo’s GDP grew rapidly, but after the fall in prices in 1986, it dropped sharply. Despite the increase in oil production in the 1990s, there was no real economic recovery.
    Most of the population is engaged in growing for own consumption and selling on the domestic market cassava and bananas (the main food crops), as well as yams and a small amount of some other crops. Export crops (sugarcane, oil palm, coffee and cocoa trees, tobacco and peanuts) are cultivated mainly on plantations owned by Europeans. Animal husbandry is limited due to the widespread use of the tsetse fly, a carrier of a form of sleeping sickness that is fatal to cattle. Congo meets most of its meat needs through imports from Chad. Only 2% of the land is cultivated, and as the urban population grows, food imports increase.
    The largest source of state revenues is oil, the deposits of which were explored in 1957. At present, the offshore fields of Emerod, Loango, and Likuala are being developed. Since 1973, the Congo has been exporting a significant part of its oil production. From 1985 to 1997, the annual oil production in the country increased from 6.3 million tons to 13 million. A profitable export item is also valuable tropical wood, mainly okume, limba and acajou. From 1969 to 1977, the development of potash salt reserves in the Pointe-Noire region was carried out, but due to flooding, the mine was out of order, and production was stopped. Reserves of high-quality iron ore have been explored.
    At the first stage, the process of industrialization of the Congo was facilitated by the presence in the country of first-class ports — the sea in Pointe-Noire and the river in Brazzaville — and the fact that for a long time the country was the administrative center of the former French Equatorial Africa. In the early 1980s, the share of the manufacturing industry in GDP increased noticeably, at the same time, the imperfection of the state planning system began to manifest itself. Currently, the country has established the production of beer and soft drinks, canned vegetables and fruits, sugar, flour and fish products. There are enterprises for the production of tobacco and cigarettes, wood products, including timber and plywood, cement, soap and shoes. Early 19In the 70s, a shipyard was commissioned, built with the help of China. In 1976, an oil refinery was put into operation at Pointe-Noire with a capacity of 1 million tons of crude oil per year. In the period from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, the state nationalized existing and built new industrial enterprises. Since then, successive governments have sought to privatize most state and semi-state enterprises. Among those recently privatized is Hydro-Congo, a former state-owned refinery distribution company. Electricity for businesses and residential buildings comes from thermal power plants in Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville and hydroelectric power plants in Djue and Imbulu.
    The key transport artery of the entire Central African region is the waterway from the capital of the Central African Republic, Bangui, to the port of Brazzaville on the Congo River, and from there by rail to the seaport of Pointe-Noire.
    Since the 1970s, oil exports to the Congo have led to a positive trade balance. However, in 1996 and 1997 the value of exports and imports almost equalized. Moreover, the Congo is forced to service a huge external debt and import many goods, which has led to a significant annual current account deficit. At 1996 this deficit exceeded $1 billion. Congo’s foreign debt increased from less than $1 billion in 1980 to over $6 billion in 1996. Over half of its imports come from France, and the United States is the largest consumer of Congolese exports. Other important trading partners are Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and Italy. If in 1987 the export of crude oil brought the country 700 million dollars, then in 1996 it was already 1.36 billion dollars (92% of the total value of exports). The next most important export item is timber, primarily roundwood (in 1996 sold for $85 million). They import machinery and equipment, mainly for the oil industry, food and consumer goods. As a rule, the Congo has a positive trade balance with the member countries of the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC), which, in addition to the Congo, includes the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Gabon. The Congo supplies UDEAC countries with sugar, tobacco, beverages and crude oil. The deficit in the balance of payments is partially offset by income from transport services, as well as foreign subsidies and investments in oil, logging and other industries.
    Congo is part of the French franc zone. Together with Gabon, Chad, the Central African Republic and Cameroon, it is a member of the Monetary Union of Central Africa. The common central bank of these countries is the Bank of Central African States, which issues a single currency — the CFA franc.
    HISTORY
    When Europeans appeared on the territory of the Congo, there already existed several states, such as Loango, Teke, and others. In 1482, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Kan landed at the mouth of the Congo River. Throughout the 16th century the Portuguese, often working in concert with the inhabitants of the coastal regions, established a lucrative slave trade. They sent the inhabitants of the hinterland captured into slavery to the plantations owned by the Portuguese in Brazil and on the island of Sao Tome. Soon after the Portuguese, the Dutch, British and French appeared in this part of the Congolese coast, who also engaged in the slave trade. Then Catholic missionaries began to arrive, gradually growing into a small flock. Throughout the 18th century French trading companies showed great interest in the coast of Gabon. However, by the end of 19in. The French began to actively develop the territory of modern Congo. The commander of the French expedition, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, sought to establish French control over the hinterland of Africa, located east of Gabon. His explorations in 1875-1883 helped France to substantiate its claims to the territory stretching from the Atlantic coast to the confluence of the Ubangi and Congo rivers. In 1880, P. Savorgnan de Brazza managed to convince the makoko (king) bateke to agree to the establishment of a French protectorate on the right bank of the Congo river. In 1885, French claims to the territory of the Congo were recognized by other colonial powers.
    In 1889 the French government decided to exploit the natural resources of the Congo by granting concessions to private companies. They were also given broad powers in government; the role of the metropolitan authorities was limited to the collection of taxes and rents. The facts of the cruel exploitation of the Congolese, which became public in 1905-1906, led to a number of international scandals, and in 1907 the French government was forced to restrict the activities of the companies. True, by that time the population of the Congo had declined significantly, which had a negative impact on the extraction of ivory and rubber. During the interwar period, mistreatment of Congolese was common when they were used to build a railroad between Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire on the Atlantic coast. An estimated 17,000 Africans died during this period, with thousands fleeing.
    One of the forms of anti-colonial protest was the creation of various religious sects of a messianic nature. Such Afro-Christian sects originated among the African flock of European religious missions, predominantly Catholic or Protestant.

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