01 mar 2020 . Actualizado a las 17:22 h.
Santiagoes el nombre de las mil caras. Diego, Jaime, Jaume, Jacobo, Iago, Yago, Tiago, Xacobo… Todos ellos son variantes procedentes del primigenio Jacob hebreo que pas al griego como Ikobos y al latn como Iacobus para derivar en el Medievo a Jacomu y de ah a todas estas formas en cada uno de los idiomas que alumbr la lengua de Roma en la pennsula Ibrica. En castellano, la forma que ms xito tuvo fue Yago, que de tanto pronunciarse junto con el sant que sealaba la santidad del discpulo de Jess acab siendo Santiago, en una nica palabra. Y han sido muchos los compostelanos que a lo largo de los siglos han bautizado con este nombre a sus hijos, una tradicin que, sin embargo, se ha ido perdiendo poco a poco en los ltimos aos.
En el Instituto Galego de Estatstica (IGE) hay datos de los ltimos setenta aos que revelan cmo han ido evolucionando y cambiando las modas. Antes de 1930, Santiago era el undcimo nombre ms comn entre los varones de la comarca compostelana, por detrs de Manuel, Jos, Jess, Antonio, Francisco, Jos Mara, Ramn, Andrs, Juan y Luis, todos ellos ms populares a la hora de bautizar a los nios.
De todos los nombres derivados del Iacobus latino, Santiago fue siempre el ms utilizado por los compostelanos hasta la dcada de los aos 80 del siglo pasado, aunque solo en los aos 30 estuvo en el top 10 con un dcimo puesto, que ya baj al decimotercero en la dcada de los 40, para remontar al undcimo lugar en la de los 50 e iniciar despus un declive constante hasta llegar a desaparecer del rnking de los treinta nombres de varn ms utilizados en la comarca santiaguesa. As, en los 60 baj al puesto quince y en los 70 y 80 al diecinueve, para caer en los 90 al vigsimo y de ah a la nada. Significativo es que actualmente solo haya 597 hombres que lleven el nombre del Apstol y de la ciudad, el 6,17 % del total y solo el duodcimo puesto.
Ni mil santiagos censados
En la comarca, el IGE solo tiene registrados 929 vecinos con Santiago como nombre. De ellos, adems de los 597 vecinos de la ciudad, 158 estn en Ames, en el puesto 22; 112 en Teo, en el puesto decimoquinto del rnking; 46 en Brin —puesto 16— y otros 16 en Val do Dubra —puesto vigsimo—. En Boqueixn y Vedra ni aparece entre los 25 que registra el Instituto de Estatstica, lo que significa que en estos concellos no hay ni cinco vecinos que tengan este nombre.
Que poner Santiago a un hijo se ha pasado de moda es evidente. Con el paso del tiempo, han ido prefirindose otras formas distintas del nombre del Apstol. En los aos 40 ya apareca Jaime en el puesto dieciocho, aunque en los 50 baj al 24 y ya no ha vuelto a aparecer en el rnking.
Diego entr en el puesto treinta en la dcada de los 70 y estuvo muy de moda en los aos 80 y 90, cuando se situ en la sexta posicin del rnking, la ms alta en la que ha estado cualquiera de las variantes del nombre Santiago. En las dcadas del 2000 y del 2010, Diego baj al dcimo y decimotercer puesto y en los 90 hizo una nica y fugaz aparicin Jacobo, que en esa dcada fue el 29 ms popular en la comarca.
En los ltimos treinta aos, la forma que ms ha triunfado ha sido la abreviada y gallega Iago, que en los aos 90 ya se coloc como la 22 ms popular entre los compostelanos y que desde entonces no ha parado de ganar adeptos. En la dcada del 2000 ascendi al puesto duodcimo y en la del 2010 hasta el noveno. En esa evolucin tambin ha tenido mucho xito la versin castellana de esta forma abreviada, Yago, que en estos ltimos veinte aos ha entrado en el rnking en el puesto 30 en la dcada del 2000 y en el 29 en la del 2010.
El gallego ha tardado en consolidarse en la comarca de Santiago a la hora de poner nombre a los hijos. El pionero fue Iria, que en la dcada de los 80 se situ como el vigsimo ms utilizado para mujer. En los 90 subi una posicin y se situ en el diecinueve y en este selecto grupo entraron otros cuatro. Dos de chica, Anta y Uxa, que se alzaron en los puestos 16 y 29, respectivamente, y otros dos de chico, Brais y Iago, que se colocaron 16 y 22 en esta clasificacin
Pero no fue hasta el presente siglo cuando los nombres en gallego comenzaron a consolidarse entre los preferidos de los padres. Hay que tener en cuenta que algunos coinciden completamente con la forma castellana, como es el caso de los muy utilizados Manuel, Miguel, Diego, Marcos, Pedro o Samuel, para varn, o los Paula, Mara, Carolina, Raquel para mujer. Ninguno de estos se tienen en cuenta en esta comparativa, en la que solo se contabilizan las formas que son nicas del gallego.
Fue en los aos 2000 cuando se inici una explosin que no hace ms que aumentar ao tras ao. En esa dcada triunfaron an ms Brais y Iago, aupados a los puestos noveno y duodcimo, y entraron tambin en el rnking Anxo, en el quince, y Antn, en el 25. En chicas, Uxa ascendi al noveno, Anta al doce e Iria al trece y adems entr por primera vez Noa, que se coloc de golpe en el doce.
En la pasada dcada, la de los aos 2010 hubo siete nombres de chico en gallego en ese rnking de treinta: Iago (9), Antn (12), Brais (15), Anxo (18), Lois (20), Xoel (21) y Roi (22). Mejor fue en los nombre de chica, porque Noa se alz en el primer puesto en una lista de siete formada por La (11), Iria (12), Anta (13), Uxa (15), Aroa (25) y Sabela, que se situ en el 27.
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Yago es un nombre de niño que tiene dos posibles significados: uno es el de “Dios nos recompensará” y el otro “sostenido por el talón”. El nombre de Yago está relacionado con otros nombres muy comunes en nuestro país, como Santiago, Thiago, Jacobo o Jaime.
Las personas que llevan el nombre de Yago se caracterizan por ser tranquilos, independientes y un tanto misteriosos. Les cuesta abrirse a los demás y demostrar su verdadero yo, aunque, una vez cogen confianza, suelen ser unos excelentes amigos, personas con las que siempre se puede contar.
Yago es un hombre muy organizado y cerebral. Sabe lo que quiere en la vida y cómo conseguirlo. No le importa trabajar duro si luego su esfuerzo se ve recompensado con unos buenos resultados. Esta predisposición le llevará a destacar en todo lo que haga, convirtiéndose, sin proponérselo, en un líder, independientemente de la profesión que desempeñe.
Yago aprecia el arte y la cultura, y es un gran aficionado a los viajes, de los que siempre extrae nuevos conocimientos y enseñanzas. Podría dedicarse a ello profesionalmente, aunque también es un gran apasionado del deporte, donde puede destacar especialmente. Otras profesiones que le podrían atraer son la ingeniería y la informática.
Detrás de una apariencia dura y fría, Yago esconde una gran sensibilidad. En el amor, le cuesta expresar sus sentimientos, pero, cuando vence su timidez, se muestra como un hombre apasionado y cariñoso, que se entrega de forma generosa a su pareja, sin esperar recibir nada a cambio.
Uno de los sueños de Yago es crear una gran familia, por lo que pronto manifestará su deseo de tener hijos. Sus padres, a quienes adora, serán un ejemplo a seguir a la hora de educar y cuidar a sus hijos. Yago es una persona muy familiar y le gusta pasar tiempo rodeado de los suyos. En este ambiente es donde se muestra más cercano y abierto, y donde se le puede conocer mejor.
Yago es un nombre de origen hebreo. Existen dos teorías acerca de su procedencia. Algunos afirman que el nombre proviene de la palabra hebrea Yeagob, que significa “Yavhé nos recompensará”. Otros, en cambio, sostienen que Yago es la forma gallega del nombre de Jacobo, pues deriva de Ya’cob, que significa “sostenido por el talón”.
(Te interesa: Nombres bíblicos para niños: ¡los más bonitos!)
Una de las personas más conocidas en nuestro país con este nombres es Yago Lamela, atleta asturiano nacido en Avilés el 24 de julio de 1977. Se inició en el atletismo con la modalidad de triple salto, para, posteriormente, especializarse en salto de longitud. Con esta prueba, llegó a ser doble subcampeón del mundo en el año 1999; concretamente, en Maebashi, Japón, consiguió realizar un salto de 8,56 cm, lo que significó un récord europeo en pista cubierta que mantuvo durante diez años.
En 2009, anunció oficialmente su retirada del mundo del atletismo, provocada especialmente por sus continuas lesiones. Murió en 2014, con apenas 36 años, como consecuencia de un paro cardíaco.
Iago Aspas es un futbolista gallego nacido en Moaña (Pontevedra) el 1 de agosto de 1987, que juega actualmente como delantero en el Celta de Vigo.
Se formó en las categorías inferiores del Celta de Vigo, donde fue escalando posiciones hasta llegar al equipo titular, debutando en primera división. Tras siete años en el equipo gallego, en 2013, fichó por el Liverpool FC, donde apenas jugó un año. Fue cedido al Sevilla FC en 2014 y, un año después, en 2015, volvió a las filas del Celta, equipo en el que juega en la actualidad. Tiene dos hijos, Thiago y Mia, fruto de su relación con Jenni Rueda, con la que contrajo matrimonio en 2019.
Yago Hortal es un pintor nacido en Barcelona en 1983. Se licenció en Bellas Artes por la Universidad de Barcelona y se ha convertido en uno de los artistas noveles con mayor proyección internacional: ha expuesto sus colecciones en ciudades como Los Ángeles, Berlín, Nueva York o Barcelona.
Su pintura destaca por sus tonos vivos, brillantes, incluso fluorescentes, con trazos enérgicos y vitales, que, muchas veces, sobrepasan el límite del lienzo, como si quisieran desplazarse hacia el espectador para que sienta la pintura y despierte en él determinadas sensaciones. Recibió el Premio a la Pintura Joven tan solo un año después de graduarse en Bellas Artes como reconocimiento a su incipiente talento.
¿Sabías que Yago fue uno de los personajes principales de una obra de Shakespeare? Se trata de Otelo, el moro de Venecia, obra de teatro escrita aproximadamente en 1604, que narra, a modo de tragedia, una historia de venganza, celos y envidias, que terminan con la muerte del protagonista y de su amada, y en la que Yago se alza como principal artífice de esta trama, promovido por su odio y su maldad.
Lo cierto es que, a pesar de ser un nombre con una larga tradición, Yago se ha empezado a hacer popular hace relativamente poco. Según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística, en España, existen 8.206 hombres que se llaman Yago y la edad media es de 13 años. La mayoría de los Yagos se concentran en Galicia y Asturias, aunque es un nombre que se puede encontrar en toda la geografía española.
También es muy frecuente la versión del nombre escrita con “i” latina, Iago: podemos encontrar a 7.314 personas con el nombre de Iago, y la media de edad es de 16 años.
La fecha de celebración del santo de Yago es el 25 de julio.
El diminutivo más utilizado para el nombre de Yago es Yaguito.
El número de la suerte es el 3.
(Te interesa: Numerología: ¿qué número corresponde a tu personalidad?)
¿Te gustan los nombres gallegos para tu hijo? Te ofrecemos una selección de los nombres gallegos más bonitos para niños y niñas.
90,000 “Twelfth night, or whatever”
Table of Table
preserved information that this comedy was played in 1602 at the Middle Temple Law Corporation. It does not follow, however, that it was a new play. E. C. Chambers dates it to 1599–1600. Recently, the opinion has been increasingly expressed that the name of one of the main characters was given by Shakespeare in honor of the Italian Orsino, Duke of Bracciano, who visited London in 1600-1601. Thus, opinions agree that the comedy should be attributed to 1600. At the same time, it is considered the last of the cheerful comedies of the great playwright. nine0062
The comedy did not appear in print during Shakespeare’s lifetime and was first published in a 1623 folio. The main line of action (Olivia — Orsino — Viola) is borrowed from Barnaby Rich’s book «Farewell to the Military Profession» (1581), but the plot had a long history before Rich: it first appeared in the Italian comedy «Confused» (1531), then in one of short stories by Bandello (1554), passed from him to the Frenchman Belfort and from there he got to England. But only the romantic plot line was borrowed. Malvolio, Sir Toby Belch, Maria, Sir Andrew Aguecheek are the creations of Shakespeare. However, the whole romantic story is also comprehended by Shakespeare in its own way. nine0062
The name is random. The twelfth night after Christmas was the end of the winter holidays, and it was celebrated with especially wild merriment. A comedy was timed for such an occasion, for which Shakespeare did not look for a name, suggesting that the public consider it “anything”. Critics, however, attributed a more significant meaning to the title. The twelfth night of the Christmas holidays was like a farewell to the fun. If you believe the accepted chronology of Shakespeare’s work, then his comedy turned out to be a «farewell to gaiety» for the playwright himself. After Twelfth Night, Shakespeare’s «dark comedies» and great tragedies appear; he will no longer create a single merry comedy. nine0062
So, Shakespeare says goodbye to gaiety. It seems that he really exhausted all the sources of comedy and now, creating this comedy, he repeats in a new combination much of what we have already met in his previous works. Comic confusion due to the resemblance of twins formed the basis of the plot of his first Comedy of Errors. The girl dressed as a man was in The Two Veronese, The Merchant of Venice and As You Like It. A character like Sir Toby Belch is akin to Falstaff, and Andrew Aguecheek is like Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor. nine0062
A new variant of Shakespeare’s old comedic motif is the theme of the deceitfulness of the senses, which plays such an important role in Twelfth Night. The first hint of this was in The Comedy of Errors, where we saw Luciana, stunned that Antipholus of Syracuse, whom she takes to be his brother, declares his love to her. The motif of the deceitfulness of feelings in A Midsummer Night’s Dream is even more developed: here Elena, first rejected by her lover, then turns away from him herself under the influence of witchcraft. But the most striking manifestation of blindness under the influence of love spells was, of course, the famous episode in which the queen of the elves Titania caresses the weaver Base, adorned with a donkey’s head. In Twelfth Night, deception of the senses is characteristic of Orsino and Olivia. nine0062
Finally, as in a number of other comedies, the action of Twelfth Night takes place in a somewhat unrealistic setting. The feelings of the heroes are quite earthly, and they themselves are creatures of flesh and blood, but the world in which they live is Illyria, fabulous for the English of Shakespeare’s time. The beautiful name of the country, located on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, then sounded as exotic as it is now. The news of this distant land was brought to England by sailors who arrived in London from all over the world. Shakespeare liked to choose fabulous, exotic settings for his comedies. Illyria, Sicily, Bohemia — these names sounded romantic to the audience of Shakespeare’s theater, and for romantic stories he chose countries with such mysteriously enticing names. nine0062
This was also necessary for this comedy, for a cheerful romantic tale that Shakespeare wanted to tell the public. After all, his “Twelfth Night” depicts what does not often happen in life, and if it happens, then only where the action of all fairy tales takes place, and it, as a rule, is where we will never get.
Life in beautiful Illyria is even more carefree than in the Ardennes forest. Here they do not work, do not fight, and only occasionally hunt. The main occupation of the population is love and entertainment. Everyone does this, from the duke to the servants. The ruler of this fabulous country is not concerned about the affairs of his state. Orsino has a more important occupation: he is in love and delights his soul with dreams of his beautiful beloved, listening to music. nine0062
Young Viola finds herself in this land of love and funny jokes immediately after a shipwreck, during which she lost her only close person, her brother Sebastian, a face like her like two peas in a pod. And as soon as she finds herself on the coast of Illyria, she is immediately embraced by the special atmosphere of this fabulous country. The brave girl loves adventure, and since fate has thrown her here, she is ready to meet any surprises. Dressed in a man’s dress, she enters the duke’s court as a musician. Her masquerade is both a means of self-defense, common in those days when a woman had to hide her weakness, and a manifestation of the adventurism inherent in the heroine, and a kind of “prank”, a joke that gave rise to unexpected complications for her. And, of course, she immediately falls in love, not only because she is young, but also because she got into the atmosphere of the court, filled with Orsino’s dreams of beautiful love. She falls in love with him, and this love turns out to be a source of painful experiences for her. nine0062
The charm of her young musical soul instantly wins Viola the tender affection of Orsino, who feels that of all those around him, the page Cesario, as Viola called herself, is best able to understand his feelings. But for the duke, she is a man, and although Renaissance mores encouraged platonic passion between people of the same sex, as evidenced by Shakespeare’s Sonnets, Viola longs for a different love. But she has selflessness. Her love is not selfish. It will be a bitter happiness for her if she manages to win favor with Orsino from Olivia, whom he loves. Although the analogy is not complete, the structure of Viola’s feelings finds some correspondence in the same Shakespeare’s Sonnets, the lyrical hero of which also experienced bitter satisfaction in the fact that two beautiful creatures dear to him fell in love with each other. One way or another, Viola selflessly fights for Olivia to reciprocate Orsino’s feelings. She knows how to talk about love so beautifully that she achieves an unexpected result: Olivia falls in love with a girl in disguise. And here begins the comedy of the deceitfulness of feelings, which Shakespeare was so fond of portraying. nine0062
Of the three romantic characters in the comedy, Viola is the only one who not only has a warm heart, but also a clear mind. She alone can see all the confusion of the situation that arose because of her dressing up. She is one of those Shakespearean heroines, whose beautiful femininity is combined with the stability of feelings, boundless fidelity, and the depth of heartfelt feelings.
Orsino has a different mentality. He, like Romeo before meeting Juliet, not so much loves the object of his sighs as he is in love with love. His young soul opened up to a great feeling, but his love is, as it were, admiring the beauty of the experiences associated with this feeling. No wonder he needs music so much. It both nourishes and calms his agitated emotions. His feelings are subtle, and the former courageous entertainments, like hunting, now do not give him pleasure. Communication with Cesario gives him much more, because in the gentle soul of the page, he finds consonance with his experiences. He doesn’t even realize how important this friendship is to him. When at the end of the comedy it turns out that Cesario is a girl, Orsino does not have to rebuild his attitude towards this young creature, which he had already fallen in love with because it understood his feelings so well. Therefore, for him, the discovery of Viola’s true identity is a joy, and he instantly gives her all his longing love for reciprocity. nine0062
If Orsino’s whole life is spent in anticipation of great love that can fill his heart, then we meet Olivia when, contrary to nature, she decided to deny herself all the joys of life. Having experienced great grief, the loss of her father and brother, Olivia wanted to get away from the bustle of the world, close access to attachments, the deprivation of which causes suffering. But at heart she is young and, like Orsino and Viola, is also ripe for love. Her determination to lead a hermitic lifestyle does not last long. As soon as Cesario appears, curiosity awakens in her first, and then passion. Strong-willed nature, she is now ready to despise everything and obligatory female modesty, and inequality of position (Caesario, although “he” is a nobleman, is still lower in rank). And now she is seeking reciprocity with the energy that Viola-Cesario showed in order to win her heart for Orsino. nine0062
We laugh at the vicissitudes of this funny story, but how pure and beautiful this laughter is! We know that Olivia is wrong, but we do not laugh at her, but at the whims of young hearts, blinded by an excess of feelings seething in them. These feelings are beautiful and noble. In them, the best spiritual abilities of a person are manifested, but even this best, it turns out, can put someone in a ridiculous position who is deprived of the opportunity to know what the one or she to whom the heartfelt feeling is directed is. nine0062
About the same thing happens to Olivia as to Orsino at the end of the comedy. Having met Viola’s brother, Sebastian, she takes him for a page she has fallen in love with and, having reached the limit of passion, invites him to get married immediately. Chance brought her first to Viola, whose spiritual qualities captivated the imagination of the young countess. She fell in love with Cesario Viola not for her appearance, but for her courage, character, perseverance and poetry of the soul. And then the case made a substitution: Olivia met Sebastian, not only in face, but also in other qualities similar to her sister. He boldly went towards the stream of Olivia’s passion that suddenly fell upon him and, caught by it, unexpectedly, in an instant, found happiness, which others have been looking for all their lives and far from always find. This happens only in fairy tales, but before us is just a fairy tale about how people seek happiness in love, and about how it comes to them in a completely different way than they expected it. Orsino sought Olivia, and found happiness in Viola; Olivia longed for the reciprocity of Cesario Viola, and found it from Sebastian; Viola suffered without hope for happiness, but it unexpectedly came to her; Sebastian was looking for his sister, but found his lover and wife. nine0062
What happens in the circle of Orsino — Olivia — Viola — Sebastian is a high comedy, a comedy of pure and beautiful feelings. All of them are people of great spiritual nobility, perhaps even too beautiful for the real world, but the ideal mental warehouse of such people brings true beauty to life. Art, striving to raise a person to the true heights of humanity, truth and beauty, chooses such heroes in order to reveal through them what a person is capable of at his best. nine0062
But this is not that incorporeal ideality that deprives the artistic image of persuasiveness, but a high spiritual mood, combined with amazing penetration into the real properties of the human heart. That is why Shakespeare remains a realist even when he plunges into the world of romance. And therefore, in this whole sweet fairy tale, where beautiful feelings put people in ridiculous situations, we feel the undoubted truth of life. nine0062
Next to this world of high feelings is another, more earthly world, where a person appears not in such an elegant form, but still not without features that are attractive in their own way. This is the world of Sir Toby Belch and Maria. They are its center, just as Viola is the center of the world of beautiful feelings.
Sir Toby Belch is not an Illyrian at all. He has not only an English name. He is a typical «steak eater» and the same lover of merry drinking as Sir John Falstaff. He has less wit than a glorious knight, but he loves a wild life no less than he does, and he also knows the price of a good joke. nine0062
Like Falstaff, Sir Toby believes that he was born for fun and a carefree life. But at birth he did not get the means for this. He is an impoverished nobleman and forced to live by the graces of his niece Olivia. However, he is not at all embarrassed by the position of a resident, for, like Falstaff, he does not even vaguely suspect the existence of morality. It would be just something to eat, and most importantly, drink! However, we must pay tribute to his ingenuity: he also has his own source of income, in addition to the grub received in the house of a rich niece. He is engaged in a craft that in London of Shakespeare’s time was called «catching rabbits» — robbing naive provincials who came to the capital. Robert Greene, an enemy of Shakespeare, described in several pamphlets the techniques of this type of urban «hunting». nine0062
Sir Toby managed to pick up such a «rabbit» — this is the provincial dandy Sir Andrew Aguecheek, who came to London — sorry, to Illyria — to show himself, to see people and at the same time find a rich bride. Sir Toby undertook to woo him Olivia. Sir Andrew’s sighs for Olivia are an amusing parody of Orsino’s courtship. Of course, Sir Toby never deceived himself for a moment about the possibility of marrying this simpleton to Olivia. Sir Andrew was deceived, and this deceit cost him dearly. Sir Toby eats and drinks at his expense, lightening the purse of a rustic hick. We will meet later in Shakespeare another such situation — in Othello (Iago and Roderigo), but there it will end tragically for the simpleton. But Toby is not Iago, not a villain, but a cheerful bon vivant, and Andrew escapes with the loss of his wallet and horse, and a few bruises from Sebastian. nine0062
Mischievous Maria is a match for the elderly windmill Sir Toby. She is a master of inventions with which she amuses herself and others. She wants to marry Sir Toby: that would make her equal to the mistress she serves. However, she shows prudence not so much in this as in funny tricks that captivate her much more than her matrimonial plans. To lure Sir Toby into the net of marriage is no easy matter, for he is not one of those men who voluntarily give up their freedom to frolic and have fun. If it comes to his mind to marry, then perhaps with such a mischievous girl as Maria, who herself is inexhaustible in merry tricks. nine0062
It cannot be said that Sir Toby’s circle is the bottom of life, its scum. Of course, respectability does not even smell here, but this is not a world of evil. If romantic comedy heroes live in the realm of love, then Sir Toby’s company lives in the realm of fun, and only hypocrites and puritans will deny this world the moral right to exist. True, the people of this world do not think about morality themselves, but laughter and fun are necessary for the moral health of mankind, and this is the justification for the cheerful household of Countess Olivia. nine0062
These people have an enemy — the butler Malvolio. He occupies a low position, but he can bring enough harm to others. He is an enemy not only to them, but also to a pleasant life in general. Malvolio is a dry, prim, stern man, and there is something puritanical about him. He willingly supports Olivia in her desire to observe mourning and live, fenced off from the hustle and bustle of life. He looks with displeasure at Olivia’s benevolence towards Cesario. He is outraged by the very fact that people want and can have fun, indulge in entertainment and love. He himself has one passion — ambition. The position of butler gives him a small but tangible power over Olivia’s household. True, they are very recalcitrant and he constantly has to fight with them, but he does not lose hope of taming them. nine0062
Sir Toby’s merry company decides to teach Malvolio a lesson. How to do it, laughing Maria comes up with. This episode is too famous and there is no need to retell it. Let’s dwell on his character.
At first, the prank that makes Malvolio believe that Olivia is in love with him seems simply ridiculous and harmless. Gradually, however, the pranksters come to the point that they mock Malvolio not without bitterness and anger. To the modern reader and especially to the viewer, the joke begins to seem too rude and cruel, and it no longer gives pleasure. But it should not be forgotten that Sir Toby and his company are really rude people, loving, in the English manner, the most merciless «practical jokes» — practical jokes from which a person can sometimes seriously suffer. The public of the Shakespearean theater, for whom executions were an interesting spectacle, looked at such jokes differently than we do. One of the jokes — the appearance of a jester in the vestments of a priest and the confession of Malvolio (IV, 2) is a parody of Catholic rituals (it was allowed to make fun of Catholicism in Protestant England). nine0062
The image of Malvolio, initially comical, gradually acquires a different color. There is something pitiful about him. This is on the one hand. On the other hand, his figure becomes sinister. And although he is powerless in this world of fun and love, the gloomy shadow cast by him is reminiscent of the evil that exists in the real world, for, albeit in a diminished form, he still has such features that clouded the Renaissance ideals. His ambition, spitefulness, hypocrisy and vindictiveness were those vices that Shakespeare saw and showed as the sources of the tragic in life. nine0062
But here Malvolio only threatens. In the world of a fairy tale, he is weak. Therefore, even his duke orders «to persuade the world.» Malvolio, however, leaves the stage as an implacable and implacable enemy of joy and fun. They triumph in a series of marriages that complete the comedy. And we still have the feeling that although everything ends happily, somewhere outside this fairy-tale world, terrible threats to man and humanity lurk.
Shakespeare remains true to himself in that he did not turn even this ominous image into a stilted embodiment of villainy. First of all, it is a kind of human character, albeit unpleasant, but certainly real. Sir Toby, Maria and the others are right in fighting Malvolio. But not all truth is on their side. Above is the truth, which is embodied in the spiritual nobility of Viola, Orsino and Olivia. But in general, the people of these two worlds are allies in the rejection of hypocrisy and the affirmation of the joy of life. At the same time, the happiness of noble love is higher than those primitive pleasures for which Toby and his ilk live. nine0062
Except for Malvolio, all the characters in the comedy are kind, cheerful, sympathetic and cheerful. But there is another character that stands out among them. This is the jester Feste. We see him among the participants in the merry prank perpetrated on Malvolio, we hear his impudent jokes on those to whom he is obliged to obey. He is one of Shakespeare’s most witty jesters. But there is a feature in him that distinguishes him from all his predecessors in Shakespeare’s comedies.
Feste is melancholic, there is a certain weariness in him from the fun that others so easily enjoy. He appears in comedy as an exponent of moods that are at odds with its general tone. In the melancholy of Feste, criticism has long seen a harbinger of Shakespeare’s future tragedy. nine0062
Meanwhile, the image of Feste, as we now know it, is the result of changes made to comedy in the course of its stage history in Shakespeare’s theater. We owe this discovery to three researchers — Flay, Noble and J. Dover Wilson.
To understand the essence of the matter, one must remember the beginning of the comedy. Viola says she can sing and play musical instruments. As a musician, she enters the court of Orsino. But in the current text, she does not sing or play music anywhere. What is Shakespeare’s «forgetfulness»? No. Initially, the role of Viola was played by a boy actor who could sing beautifully and play musical instruments. It is not difficult to imagine that it was Viola who sang the sad song «Hurry to me, death, hurry …», which Orsino liked so much. It corresponded both to his sad mood, caused by unrequited love, and to the feelings of Viola herself. nine0062
But time passed, the boy actor lost the data needed for this role, and the song had to be dropped from the play. But here a new circumstance helped. The remarkable comedian Robert Armin, an excellent musician with a good voice, joined the troupe of Burbage-Shakespeare. The song was given to him. Reading carefully the text, it is not difficult to see how the scene was altered in order for Feste to be summoned to Orsino’s court and sing a lyric song. Apparently, at the same time, the final song was also added, also performed by Feste and bearing an ironic-melancholic character. nine0062
Precisely in this way, apparently, those melancholic motifs penetrated the comedy, which not only gave a new color to the image of Festa, but also left a seal on the whole play as a whole. This alteration dates back to the time when Shakespeare created his great tragedies and «dark comedies». From this we can conclude that the introduction of new motives into comedy was not an accident. But their importance should not be exaggerated. Twelfth Night remains one of Shakespeare’s most upbeat, optimistic comedies. Creating it in its original form, Shakespeare did not suspect any «farewell to cheerfulness.» Only later it turned out that he could never again write a single such cheerful and charming comedy as this one. nine0062
Meaning of the name Iago: following someone.
Origin of the name Iago: Georgian names.
The name Iago symbolizes abundance, everything here points to material wealth and financial success. Thanks to natural magnetism, as well as ambition and determination, Iago can easily take a leading position. Iago uses thinking big to expand his abilities and capabilities, climbing to the top of any career ladder to achieve heights unthinkable by others. However, with great power comes great responsibility, which, on the one hand, gives rise to workaholics, and on the other hand, is fraught with the danger of falling into excessive lust for power and mercantilism. However, these negative qualities can be negated if Iago tries to use his success to help others, since there is nothing more valuable than a contribution to the common good.
The name number eight (8) contributes to success in the largest undertakings and enterprises, providing financial independence to its owner. Natural industriousness and efficiency do not give people with the name Iago peace — having barely completed one successful project, they start another. The number eight (8) for the name Iago is an indicator of high status and a stable financial position, which attracts fans and admirers to them, and by no means external attractiveness or sexuality …
Stones for the name Iago: amethyst, apatite, beryl, verdelite, heliodor, hematite (bloodstone), garnet, pearl, coral, labradorite, lapis lazuli, malachite, obsidian, onyx, rhodonite, sapphire, carnelian, tourmaline, uvarovite, chalcedony, chrysolite, zircon, spinel, jasper.
Signs of the Zodiac: Leo, Scorpio, Pisces.
More details: the number of the name Iago is 8
Lucky years for the name Iago: 1907, 1916, 1925, 1934, 1943, 1952, 1961, 1970, 1979, 1988, 1997, 2006, 2015, 20334. More details: names of the year.
I — indicates gentleness, sympathy and compassion.