Sumar y restar son las primeras operaciones matemáticas que aprenden los niños. Sin embargo, no aprenden todo al mismo tiempo. Aprenden a sumar y restar gradualmente entre kínder y cuarto grado.
Averigüe más sobre cuándo los niños desarrollan esta habilidad.
Aprender a sumar y restar empieza con aprender a contar. Algunos niños aprenden a contar en la guardería o en el preescolar, pero no significa que sepan sumar o restar. Conozca cómo suele ser el proceso de aprender a sumar y restar:
Si al llegar a cuarto grado los niños no pueden sumar y restar sin usar objetos o imágenes, no significa necesariamente que exista un problema. Los niños se desarrollan a diferente velocidad. Sin embargo, si tienen dificultades y están atrasados es importante saber la causa.
Se pueden tener dificultad para aprender matemáticas por diversas razones. Un motivo común es la dificultad con un grupo de habilidades que son más básicas que contar, sumar y restar. Estas habilidades se conocen como sentido numérico.
La falta de concentración también puede dificultar aprender a sumar y a restar. Obtenga más información sobre qué puede causar dificultades con las matemáticas.
Practicar sumas y restas puede ayudar a mejorar estas habilidades. No tiene que parecer que es una obligación. Estas son algunas actividades divertidas que puede intentar:
La mayoría de los niños de cuarto grado entienden cómo sumar y restar.
Los juegos de mesa que usan matemáticas pueden ayudar a que los niños sumen y resten mejor.
Si los estudiantes de cuarto grado tienen dificultades con estas operaciones matemáticas es importante saber el porqué.
Tara Drinks es directora asociada en Understood.
Brendan R. Hodnett (MAT) es maestro de educación especial en Middletown, New Jersey y profesor adjunto en Hunter College.
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El desarrollador (Didactoons Games SL) indicó que, entre las prácticas de privacidad de la app, pueden incluirse el manejo de datos que se describe a continuación. Para obtener más información, consulta la política de privacidad del desarrollador.
Los siguientes datos pueden recopilarse, pero no están asociados con tu identidad:
Datos de uso
Las prácticas de privacidad pueden variar; por ejemplo, según tu edad o las funciones que uses. Más información
Sitio web del desarrollador
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Política de privacidad
Many times the debate about portions of food for small children is opened . As we have doubts about whether we will give them the required amount, we may be a little behind or surpass ourselves. Well, today you will get rid of doubts once and for all.
It is true that changes as the amount increases because they will also need more, depending on the energy consumed. We can also calculate an average of our babies’ height so that we know the most corrected amount in terms of the food portions we should be giving. To find out!
Again, this will always depend on age and physical activity kids. But in general, we can say that the calories that they need to consume from day to day exceeds 1100 . While this may seem like a lot to us, it is true that we should combine them in the form of a varied diet so that you can get all the vitamins and nutrients you need.
We must always remember that this is an estimate, but it can serve as a guideline when placing bids for the preparation of menus and meals for your children.
They are already growing up, going to school and three-year-olds are already adding energy that they will expend during the day . For this reason, we are well aware that the amounts also tend to increase. We will do this gradually because I insist once again that not everyone has the same needs.
Are you one of those who counts the portions of food that should be given to young children?
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The education system in Spain is quite similar to what we are used to, but it has variations at each stage, and each region has its own peculiarities, so it is difficult to write a detailed, complete and accurate article: after all, you need to mention everything variety you may encounter. Therefore, we will analyze some details in detail in subsequent articles, now we will describe the general structure.
Education here is free. Of the mandatory costs, only the purchase of textbooks (there are several options for saving on this expense item, and we will talk about this separately in future publications). In most colleges, you need to pay for school materials for general use, there are contributions to the parent committee of the school. Optionally, you can pay for lunch in the canteen and travel on the school bus. Depending on the financial condition and composition of the family, these items of expenditure may differ for each student. In some cases, the state fully assumes all costs.
As you may have guessed from the definition of the type of school, you will have to pay for it, as it is semi-private. But most of the costs are borne by the state and the Catholic Church. The study of religion is not imposed here, but considerable attention is paid to Catholic values. Education follows the standard Spanish education system. Many schools emphasize the study of foreign languages.
The most popular are English and American schools. The advantage of such schools is that they combine two education systems, as a result of which the student, after successfully completing his studies, receives a bachelor’s degree (A Level, IB) with an international diploma.
If your child is a professional tennis or football player, consider a sports boarding school in Spain. Pupils live and play sports on its territory, and in order to gain knowledge on the compulsory education system, they attend private schools, where they are taken by bus from the boarding school. The schedule is drawn up so that the student completes the entire school curriculum, while leaving enough time for professional sports.
You can read detailed information about schools in Spain in our article
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Previously, pre-school institutions were focused solely on looking after and caring for children. Now they are included in the state education system. The program for kids is aimed at communication, defining themselves and their space, physical development, primary knowledge of the world around them and intellectual development according to age.
Pre-school education in Spain is voluntary and includes two cycles:
These are similar to nursery schools. During this period, the main goal is to help parents combine work and caring for children, and for kids to acquire the first useful habits and important skills for socialization in society and preparation for the school curriculum.
The state does not guarantee free pre-school education at the first stage (0-3 years). Therefore, not every district, city, municipality may have a sufficient number of free places in a state preschool institution. Accordingly, private establishments can offer different conditions at a variety of prices. For example, to take babies literally from the age of five months (maternity leave here lasts 16 weeks and sometimes mothers choose to return to work, leaving the baby in a nursery). The price will depend on many factors: there is no general standard for the number of hours per day, the variety of additional options, the number of children in the group, vaccination requirements, and so on.
This is similar to a kindergarten with a pre-school program. At this age, special attention is paid to the physical, social and intellectual development of babies.
Sometimes kindergartens (centros de educación infantil) have their own buildings, sometimes they are located in the same building as primary schools (centros de educación infantil y Educación primaria), but always the youngest students are diligently separated from older students, for example, in a large school The infantile occupies a separate wing of the school, with its own toilets and a separate entrance, a separate yard for walking during recess.
Primary education in Spain requires six academic years of schooling.
Primary school is for children aged 6-12. Children of a strictly defined year of birth are accepted into the first grade, it is not customary here to send children to study earlier or later at the request of their parents. This stage of education is compulsory and free of charge in public schools.
1. The school year in Spain starts around the second or third week of September (every year the first day of school falls on a different date) and lasts until the twentieth of June. It consists of 3 semesters: from September to Catholic Christmas; from mid-January to Catholic Easter; from the first week after Easter until mid-late June.
2. It is not always possible to send your child to the school closest to your home. If the nearest classes are already recruited, you can be offered a school within transport accessibility. As a rule, in this case, the child will be reimbursed for transportation costs or provided with a school bus. In Spain, parents try to choose the school closest to their home or place of work.
3. A place for a child in a particular school is not fixed for all 6 years. Every year it is necessary to confirm the place, fill out several forms and not allow unreasonable omissions at the beginning of the school year (you can lose a place in your school, then the child will be sent to one where there is a place). The application for the next year is submitted in February-May (in different regions, municipalities and schools in different ways). Enrollment takes place in June.
4. In the new academic year, children can be transferred from one class to another without the consent of the child and parents. This is done in order to expand the possibilities of communication.
5. A primary school teacher in Spain (tutor) is an analogue of a class teacher, but he is not assigned to the class for all 6 years. Each year a new teacher may come to your class.
6. Parent meetings are held 2 times a year and have a school-wide character. They cannot clarify the level of preparation of their child or solve a private issue. Only general. For all private questions, you need to sign up for a meeting with the teacher, or communicate via a special electronic system.
7. Most of the subjects from the first to the sixth grade will be taught by a tutor (class teacher). Only a few, such as physical education, are taught by a separate teacher.
8. Perhaps your child will be taught the basics of religion, as in Spain children are introduced to religion from an early age.
9. At the end of each year, children take exams. There are more than two «tails» left, then the student is left for the second year.
But do not worry too much about this issue, many foreign children go through this path. Being a repeater in Spain is not a shame, here they take it calmly. When moving to a new country, children need not only to tune in to a new curriculum that is different from their native country, but also to perceive all the information in a new language for themselves. Sometimes it is better for the child to stay for the second year in order to go through the educational material again — with an already higher level of Spanish and an understanding of the new education system.
10. For a better understanding of foreign (most often, it is English) and local (for example, Valencian) languages, some subjects will be taught in them: physical education, music, drawing (educación artística).
Students take this stage in a separate educational institution, instituto.
It will take 4 years to complete this stage. Children aged 12-16 study in secondary school, while those who stayed for several years in the second year, after reaching the age of 18, must pass the next academic year in separate institutes for adults.
Secondary education is compulsory for all children in Spain and is free. Textbooks are usually purchased separately.
At the end of secondary school, students receive a certificate — el título de Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (GESO).
Successful graduation makes it possible to enter the next stage of education — bachelor’s degree (Bachillerato).
A school graduate with a GESO diploma can also complete further studies and start working at this stage.
As we said above, in public schools for all children of school age education is free. Textbooks in centros de educación infantil (in the infantile, as Russian-speaking residents often call this period of study), you need to buy several colorful, colored workbooks that cannot be passed on to the next students.
Every year you need to bring several packs of paper towels, wet and dry wipes to class or pay a small amount for a centralized purchase of these consumables, as well as materiales escolares: paper for photocopies, colored pencils, scissors and others.
It is also customary to pay for membership in AMPA — the parent committee of the school; the committee makes costumes for matinees, decorates the school building for the holidays, arranges a holiday with entertainment and treats on the last day of school (this is paid from membership dues). Depending on the activity of the AMPA, extra-curricular activities in the evenings, excursions can be organized — free of charge or for a nominal fee.
In private schools prices vary considerably depending on the status and location of the school. For example, on the Costa Blanca, the cost is often mentioned as expenses in the range of 1,000 euros per month, and in Valencia, the monthly payment will be from 300 euros.
Additional costs may include meals in the school cafeteria (comedor) and use of the school bus. Depending on family composition and financial status, some populations may qualify for a discount or even free meals or school transportation.
We asked members of the Russian-speaking community in Spain about personal experiences. Here are a few examples:
— “This year they paid 22 euros for English workbooks, the rest was given to us free of charge (last year’s textbooks are in good condition), lunch in the canteen costs 4.25 euros per day. ”
— “Child is 6 years old, first class, no uniform, we pay 30% for meals, full price 4.25€ per day. For textbooks, materials and ampa (parents’ committee) paid 140€.
— “Public school. Infantile 3-5 years. Textbooks and materials around 110€. City hall 6-7 years old materials about 30-40 €, textbooks are issued. Lunches 4.5€/day. The bus is free if you live further than 3 km. During the year, a fee for excursions, theater, trips, usually 3-10 euros each. For the new year, a gift set with photos, a calendar, etc. about 20€»
— Bachillerato, IES publico. The lowest cost ever. Matrikula + ampa + insurance (about 50 euros all together), textbooks were partially given out for free, 3 books were bought by ourselves (about 100 euros). A couple of new notebooks (in previous years I had to buy 12-15 notebooks of a certain type), a new backpack with Wish (28 €), that’s it! They didn’t buy stationery at all this time, there are a lot of them left from last year. ”
— “In Valencia, in a consertado-type school for a child of 4 years old, the matricula is 200 euros — this includes all excursions, uniforms — 100 euros, textbooks — 130 euros, stationery strictly according to the issued list — 40 €. In Alicante, in a public school, in «infantile» they paid only for lunches in the dining room and excursions for 5 euros. Primaria — canteen 4.25 per day, textbooks — 120-130. Nothing more yet. Oh, yes: we don’t have a form”
— “Payment: 522 euros study every month and plus transport 161 euros every month. These are 2 E.S.O. Tutorials 288 euros. School uniform approx. 200 euros»
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As you can see, the cost and conditions may differ depending on the school and the age of the child.