A menudo las prisas y las preocupaciones diarias no nos permiten dedicarle todo el tiempo que quisiéramos a nuestros hijos. Sin embargo, son precisamente los instantes cotidianos que pasamos junto a ellos los que marcan la diferencia en la relación y fortalecen la comunicación familiar. Por eso es tan importante planificar actividades que nos permitan disfrutar de algunas horas de calidad juntos. Una estrategia infalible son las adivinanzas, un juego muy divertido que también les reporta muchos beneficios a los pequeños.
Se ha demostrado que las adivinanzas son un ejercicio excelente para estimular el pensamiento abstracto, el aprendizaje y la inteligencia infantil. También les ayuda a mejorar su lenguaje, su capacidad para resolver problemas y les ayuda a apropiarse de los conceptos con mayor rapidez. De hecho, un estudio publicado en la Journal of Child Language desveló que los niños que juegan a las adivinanzas suelen ser más extrovertidos, desarrollan mejores habilidades de lectoescritura y tienen un mayor rendimiento académico en las materias de letras que los pequeños que no juegan a las adivinanzas o lo hacen con muy poca frecuencia.
Las adivinanzas también son un buen ejercicio para potenciar la memoria, sobre todo los acertijos más sencillos que los niños pueden recordar con más facilidad para contárselos luego a sus amigos en el colegio. Esto se debe a que este juego activa diferentes circuitos cerebrales, especialmente el área prefrontal de la corteza y el hipocampo, dos regiones del cerebro que participan en el desarrollo del pensamiento y el lenguaje, la decodificación de conceptos y la fijación de la memoria.
Para que puedas divertirte con tu hijo jugando a las adivinanzas y sorprenderlo con alguna que no conozca, te contamos algunas adivinanzas cortas y sencillas pero muy entretenidas con las que podréis pasar un rato en familia único.
¡Hola, hola lectores y lectoras! Espero y deseo que hayáis pasado un buen fin de semana. Ahora nos toca cuidarnos mucho por los momentos tan complicados que estamos viviendo. Si colaboramos entre todos y unidos, seremos capaces de salir de esta situación. Hoy os traigo una nueva entrada referida a la literatura infantil: las adivinanzas. Quien no recuerda haber jugado a las adivinanzas en casa con nuestra familia, cuando íbamos de viaje o en otras situaciones diarias que tenemos en nuestra memoria.
Las adivinanzas son fórmulas literarias sencillas o bien juegos de ingenio o acertijos dirigidos a los niños. Su objetivo es preguntar en forma de rima o describir algo para que sea adivinado, aprendido y más tarde reproducido.
Las adivinanzas están presentes en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de cualquier maestro o maestra de infantil y de primaria y también nos la podemos encontrar libros de adivinanzas infantiles por temáticas en el mercado.
Hoy en día cualquier docente de infantil la incluye en su programación y concretando aún más en los proyectos, en las unidades didácticas, centros de interés, … Las adivinanzas tienen su espacio y su lugar al igual que otros recursos literarios como los refranes, los dichos, los trabalenguas, los poemas o las canciones.
Un docente que quiera usar este recurso didáctico en su aula de infantil y de primaria, debe saber que nos puede servir para muchas cosas. Entre otras, para aprender nuevo vocabulario, memorizar el texto, disfrutar, para motivarnos y emocionarnos. También son geniales para desarrollar la creatividad, la imaginación, para realizar después una dramatización y contar un cuento o hacer un dibujo libre.
Cuando recitamos una adivinanza, se crea un momento mágico en el aula porque nuestro auditorio está expectante de todo lo que decimos por eso tenemos que guiarlos en este proceso. Podemos hacerlo así:
Presentar las adivinanzas en las aulas de infantil es acercar a nuestros niños y niñas al mundo de la literatura infantil para expresarnos y comprender a través del lenguaje verbal y no verbal.
También es importante para desarrollar nuestros pensamientos, nuestra memoria, imaginación y creatividad, para conocer el entorno que nos rodea, para relacionarnos como grupo, para educarnos en valores y en emociones. En definitiva, disfrutar y ser felices en esta maravillosa etapa educativa.
plata no es;
el que no lo adivine,
bien tonto es.
Por un caminito adelante
va caminando un bicho
y el nombre de ese bicho
ya te lo he dicho.
Una señorita muy señoreada,
siempre va en coche
y siempre va mojada.
Special education for people with disabilities.
A child with disabilities in his development is mainly aimed at mastering social experience, socialization, inclusion in public life. But the path that he must overcome for this, in many respects differs from the generally accepted in pedagogical practice: limited health opportunities change and complicate the development process. Because of this, the main task of special education is to prevent the occurrence of secondary deviations in development, their correction and compensation by means of education. This means the maximum full satisfaction of the non-standard educational needs that have arisen in connection with the existing violation. But it is worth remembering that the limitation of opportunities is not a purely quantitative factor (i.e. the child simply hears or sees worse). This is a complete change in the personality of the child, he is completely “different”, in need of special educational conditions in order to overcome obvious limitations in development and successfully solve the educational problem that every child faces. To do this, the child needs to master not only general education programs, but also develop and improve their own skills for a full life in conditions of limited opportunities.
Upbringing and education of children with disabilities must be carried out in special conditions, including:
1. Availability of adapted special educational programs, both general education and correctional development;
2. Taking into account the individual characteristics of the child’s development, individual pedagogical approach;
3. A subject-developing environment necessary for children with disabilities, for a full-fledged life;
4. Carrying out correctional and pedagogical work with children by specialists: a psychologist, a speech therapist, a teacher of the deaf, a typhoid teacher, and oligophrenopedagogues.
5. Provision of medical services.
6. Provision of full social support.
Children with disabilities are able to master different levels of education depending on the severity of their diseases, and most importantly on the preservation of intelligence. Some children with disabilities (hearing, vision, disorders of the musculoskeletal system, speech, disorders in the emotional-volitional sphere and behavior) are able not only to master general secondary education, but also to receive secondary and higher professional education.
Mentally retarded children do not receive qualified education. Children with intellectual disabilities are capable of mastering elementary general education and mastering professions that do not require intense intellectual activity. This gives them the opportunity to conduct independent labor activities and quite successfully adapt in society.
Severely mentally retarded children study according to individual educational programs and master programs appropriate to their developmental characteristics, which include elementary self-care skills.
There are educational standards that are determined taking into account the psychophysiological characteristics and limitations of the development of students, which are called the state standard for general education of children with disabilities, or a special educational standard. For preschool education and upbringing of children with disabilities in Russia, a whole network of preschool institutions for special purposes was built: nursery schools, kindergartens, preschool orphanages, preschool groups at nursery schools, kindergartens and general purpose orphanages, as well as at special schools and boarding schools. The staffing of such institutions was carried out according to the principle of a leading deviation in development. Thus, the educational process in specialized preschool institutions was carried out in accordance with special comprehensive training and education programs developed for each category of preschool children with developmental disabilities.
School-age children with special educational needs receive education in accordance with special educational standards in various educational institutions or at home.
Until recently in our country there were eight main types of special schools for children with various developmental disabilities, which were mainly boarding schools. Currently, in accordance with Article 79 of the Federal Law of December 29, 2012 No. 273 — FZ (as amended on July 3, 2016) «On Education in the Russian Federation» (as amended and supplemented, entered into force on September 1.2016) the content of education and the conditions for organizing the education and upbringing of students with disabilities is carried out using an adapted educational program, and for disabled people in accordance with an individual program for the rehabilitation of a disabled person. General education of students with disabilities is carried out in organizations that carry out educational activities according to adapted basic general educational programs. These organizations create the necessary conditions for education of children with disabilities. At the same time, the necessary conditions for the education of children with disabilities in the Federal Law mean the conditions for the education and upbringing of such students, including the use of special educational programs and methods of training and education, special textbooks, necessary didactic materials, special teaching aids for individual and collective use, provision of tutor services. Also, this law provides for the provision of access for students to the buildings of organizations engaged in educational activities, without which it is difficult, or completely impossible, to master educational programs for persons with disabilities.
In the context of the rapid development of the system of special psychological and pedagogical assistance, there is a search for models of special educational organizations that best meet the special educational needs of students with disabilities.
1.Borodulina S.Yu., Ledovskikh N.K. Fundamentals of correctional — pedagogical activity in educational organizations. Tutorial. – Borisoglebsk 2016
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION. WHAT IT IS?
Currently, society sets such global tasks for educational institutions as a high level and a wide range of educational services, as well as the availability of education for all categories of the child population. The fulfillment of these tasks is possible provided that a comfortable educational environment is created in educational institutions, in which educational processes take place in the most favorable conditions for students. Inclusion is one of the latest special education strategies. Inclusion means the full involvement of a child with special educational needs (SEN) in school life. The meaning of inclusion is to fully involve a child with disabilities in the life of the class. Ideally, an inclusive classroom should include several groups of children with special educational needs so that children have the opportunity to communicate with each other.
The basis of inclusive education is an ideology that eliminates any discrimination of children, which provides an equal attitude towards all people, but creates special conditions for children with special educational needs. Inclusive education is a process of development of general education, which implies the availability of education for all, in terms of adaptation to the various needs of all children, which ensures access to education for children with special needs.
Inclusive education is a process of education and upbringing in which ALL children, regardless of their physical, mental, intellectual and other characteristics, are included in the general education system and study at the place of residence together with their peers without disabilities in the same comprehensive schools that take into account their special educational needs and provide the necessary special support.
Eight principles of inclusive education:
What do the terms ‘inclusion’ and ‘inclusive’ mean by ‘inclusion’ and ‘inclusive education’ are the concepts of ‘inclusion’ and ‘inclusive education’, reflecting the changes that are taking place in the public consciousness?
Let’s consider the essence of different education systems in order to understand the advantages and risks of each of them.
General Education Special Education
Inclusion is a process that aims to take into account and meet the diverse needs of learners by increasing participation in learning, cultural and social life and reducing the number of those who are excluded from the educational process, or those who are included in the educational process, but not included in it. Inclusion is based on the ideas of a single educational space for a heterogeneous group, in which there are different educational routes for certain participants.
Inclusive Education seeks to develop a child-centered methodology recognizing that all children are individuals with different learning needs. Inclusive education seeks to develop an approach to teaching and learning that is more flexible to meet different learning needs.
If teaching and learning become more effective as a result of the changes that inclusive education introduces, then all children will benefit (not just children with special educational needs).
Modern education has a special role to play: “The new school is a school for everyone. Any school will ensure the successful socialization of children with disabilities, children with disabilities, children left without parental care, who are in a difficult life situation. The age characteristics of schoolchildren will be taken into account, training is organized differently at the primary, basic and senior levels.
The objectives of inclusive education for children with special educational needs are formulated by N. N. Malofeev: — creation of a unified educational environment for children with different starting opportunities; — development of the potential of children with special needs of psychophysical development in joint activities with healthy peers; — organization of a system of effective psychological and pedagogical support for the process of inclusive education through the interaction of diagnostic and advisory, correctional and developmental, medical and preventive, social and labor areas of activity; — development of general educational programs by children in accordance with the state educational standard;
– correction of disturbed processes and functions, deficiencies in emotional and personal development;
— formation of an adequate attitude towards the problems of persons with disabilities among all participants in the educational process;
— protection and strengthening of the physical, neuropsychic health of children;
— providing advice to families raising children with special educational needs, including them in the learning process;
— successful socialization of students, pupils.
Expected result of the content area of education of a child with disabilities in an inclusive class is contained in a number of criteria:
— what the child should know and be able to do at this level of education;
— which of the acquired knowledge and skills he can and should apply in practice;
— how actively, freely and creatively he uses them;
— mastering the sections of the educational program;
— analysis of behavior and the dynamics of its development in the daily life of the child;
— an individual profile of the development of life competence.
According to the research of H. N. Malofeev, the successful formation of an inclusive educational environment in an educational institution is served by a well-organized and well-established infrastructure of specialized psychological and pedagogical assistance to children with special educational needs, participation in the educational process of specialists in the field of general and special pedagogy, educational psychologists, teachers — speech therapists, social educators, medical workers.
The psychological-medical-pedagogical council plays a systemic role in creating an inclusive educational environment. The creation of an inclusive educational environment requires from the specialists included in the council a high level of professional competence, fluency in their profession and orientation in related fields of activity, readiness for continuous professional growth, social and professional mobility, the presence of value orientations: respect for the human person; the idea of a child as an intrinsically valuable, self-developing object of the noosphere; awareness of their role as a mentor and organizer.
An inclusive school needs a teacher who must meet modern requirements, be an educated specialist, a creative person, be aware of and implement new technologies in education, create the necessary conditions for the development or compensation, correction of lagging mental functions of the child, contribute to the formation of a psychological basis for the development of educational activities in general and each school skill separately, to achieve high results in their professional activities.
Thus, an inclusive educational environment is characterized by a system of value attitudes towards the education, upbringing and personal development of children with special educational needs, a set of resources (means, internal and external conditions) of their life in mass educational institutions and a focus on individual educational strategies of students. It serves to realize the right of every child to an education that meets his needs and abilities, regardless of the severity of the violation of psychophysical development, the ability to assimilate the qualification level of education and the type of educational institution.
Inclusive education is not compulsory for children with disabilities. Inclusive education is one of the forms of education for children with disabilities. In addition to inclusive education, there are other options for teaching disabled children in Russia: children’s abilities. In these institutions, special conditions have been created for classes with such children, doctors and special teachers work. But largely because of their isolation, already in childhood, society is divided into healthy and disabled.
Correctional classes of general education schools — a form of education differentiation that allows solving the problems of timely active assistance to children with disabilities. A positive factor in this case is that children with disabilities have the opportunity to participate in many school activities on an equal basis with their peers from other classes, as well as the fact that children study closer to home and are brought up in a family.
Home training -an option for teaching children with disabilities, in which teachers of an educational institution organizedly attend the child and conduct classes directly at the place of his residence. In this case, as a rule, education is carried out by teachers of the nearest educational institution, however, in Russia there are also specialized schools for home-based education of children with disabilities. Home schooling is conducted according to an adapted program, built taking into account the capabilities of the student. Upon completion of training, the child is issued a school leaving certificate of a general form indicating the program in which he was trained.
Distance learning — a set of educational services provided to children with disabilities using a specialized information and educational environment based on the means of exchanging educational information at a distance (satellite television, radio, computer communications, etc.). For the implementation of distance learning, multimedia equipment is required, with the help of which the child will be kept in touch with the center of distance learning. During the educational process, both the teacher and the child communicate online, and the student completes tasks sent to him in electronic form, followed by sending the results to the distance learning center.